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Saptari Killings was purely Human Rights Violation by the state

Rayznews reported " On March 5th four United Democratic Madhesi Front cadets have been killed in a firing by Police trying to dis...

Monday, August 17, 2009

ICT development and its impact

The development of Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) and internet in developing countries has both been rewarding and has suffered the consequences due to lack of proper management. The ICT and internet are the most essential part of 21st century as everything from business to money are adapted to the World Wide Web(WWW) where lack of ICT or internet knowledge means being stagnant or left out .The present condition of developing nations are completely different as compared to the developed nations, as the developed nations adapted the growth and development of ICT and Internet constricting it within the limitation of defined rules and regulations(internet policies) where as for developing countries it is a glossy and attractive application with opportunities but also highlights innumerable serious threats of hacking, security, privacy, exploitation, pornography, frauds etc with no define application mechanism to control it. For e.g. the evolvement of web has certainly made it easy to open an email account and get connected with people thousands of miles away, which to an extent is easy and convenient but the same accessibility is used to create fake accounts and to action frauds. Likewise, today in developing countries thousand of women and children are being exploited and slugged into the sex industry with promising hopes of jobs and good payoff. The defaulters they with easy access of internet and web create lucrative website with effective promotion where women are being lured and sexual exploited. This is a concerning and alarming issue which has popped up. In recent years, the sex industry with the high demands of sexual desires and prostitutes has expanded beyond boundaries where internet is used as one of the major tools for marketing. At first the brokers lure their victims with dreams of good job and payoff through emails and websites and later when the victims arrive at their defined place, they are forced to face the consequence where they have no option expert to surrender. Similarly, in developed and developing nations teenagers are very attracted to internet, In Nepal a new problem is emerging in children below 18 as everyday groups of teenagers’ flock to Cyber cafes bunking their studies just to play the online games. The news has top major Medias where children are getting addictive to such games where they spent their precious time playing online games which in the mean time should have been addressed by their studies. More often these kids also engage themselves in watching the different pornographic sites which are not meant for them. The easy accessibility made it so convenient that you can just search them on Google or any other search engine where it has become a part of the degrading societal factor. The researchers’ have conveyed a strong opinion about the easy accessibility and the content where these pornographic site not only creating a negative images of sex but are also impacting the psychology of teenagers. Developing nations are always in the short cry of money; perhaps due to lack of proper infrastructure and resources government is not able to address all the issues. These pornographic pictures and movies not only are highly sexual and violent but alternatively are giving a wrong message about sex and its real meaning. Moreover, the developing nations are specifically targeted due to their vulnerability by the irregular groups for exploitation where what teenagers’ or adults are exploited in one or the other form. The advent of web site booming has given an advantage to offenders to seeks new destination for child sex tourism. Increasing exploitation can be seen through different websites where children are sexually being exploited through internet. Especially in countries like Thailand the cases are very high. Children and youth are increasing being lured by internet to exchange sex for survival which is growing at alarming rate where organization like UNICEF is raising awareness about the issue. Likewise, lack of proper awareness, rules and regulation also impedes the developing nation where they fall prey to the strong competent who are more secure and are technically sound. Never the less, internet has been used as a tool by wrong doers to hold scams and extort money in different way. There are in-numerable cases like the Nigerian letter and cases of private information hijacking where innocent people are being preyed. Reality is internet is a foreign application created by the developed nation for their purpose where the norms, standard and regulation everything are set according to their needs and wants. And Internet and ICT was certainly passed on by the developed nation to the developing nations without adapting the pros and cons of its implementation. "Internet more of is proving to be curse then boon for countries who lack behind "Thus, the fact that ICT and Internet development certainly has boosted the process of development in developing countries but the aspect of its lack of preparation and awareness simply hinders at times where people are suffering the consequences. The best option is awareness where individual effort counts so let’s make an effort to save the other from being exploited and cheated, spreading the awareness of Internet Governance.

By Shreedeep Rayamajhi

Sunday, August 16, 2009

The Spark of Change

Everyday, we think about the change where we create our own image in giving it the description of our imagination. This description further gets influenced by the acts that are happening around us. We search reasons and questions for the acts but in reality we strees our brain so much and we get confused where we just accuse or throw words or blame others. But we forget that when we point one finger at others four fingers point at us.It’s said that “don’t hate the game hate the players;” likewise, Nepal’s politics today has turned into a garbage; a garbage full with pollutants of selfishness, corruption, and Hippocrates.Whether it Nepali Congress or UML or the Maoist party there is not a single politician or leader who could be respected or worth getting the respect. All of them, they are so limited and bounded by their selfish motives and games that they forget they are the servents of public. More or less, they indulging themselves to luxury of life with the hard earned money of tax payers and citizens disgarcing their oath of serving public.In fact reality is Politician is such a respectable position where we trusts the leaders to play a crucial role in overall development of the country but till date we see them engaging themselves in corruption, power politics, commission rackets, favoritism, social discrimination, lobbing selfish motives, accumulating people money in foreign banks etc . I bet there is not a single Politician who would be respected in true sense. They disgrace the societal value of socialism where they take the oath of serving the nation but alternately support their individual party in strengthening their forces and power.The problem here is not with the leaders, the problems here is with us the normal people, we select these leaders and when they get power they play and manipulate us in their desired ways but we keep our mouth shut, we just move to their rhythm where they treat us like nobody. I say and believe every Nepali has the bloody right to ask each of the leaders about what they did and what they are planning to do coz its our country and we pay taxes for the operation of the country. We pay tax in everything from buying a chocolate to sewage to cold drinks, evrything thing is tax but still we are least bothered group. Moreover, the hard earned money completely goes in vain paying hefty salary and comforting their luxury. It’s our responsibility to remind them of their mistake where we lack.Likewise, we blame everything upon them which is completely erratic and irresponsible, as they are selected by us. We do protests, do blockades, Chaka Jam, Bandhas etc on useless things but regarding our politician and their acts we keep silence making it limited with in the voices of a unknown tables and chairs.The fascinating part is we say politics is a dirty game, but it’s our garbage. Just by saying it bad or disgracing it, things won’t change. We have two choices either we keep our mouth shut and let the things that’s happening go on or do something about it in any way possible. It’s upon our efforts and we need to dig our hands into the garbage and clean it.We the young blood the so called generation-X need to wake up to this call and say that yes we are determined not just to blame but to take charge. We have to take resposibilitie in every possible way of being a good citizen and wrok our way in the system. It might take days or years, but change is suppose to happen and it will happen no matter what. We have the skills and courage and let’s unite to bring change.This is not just a call for me, you or anyone, it’s a call for every Nepali who feels pride to say he or she is Nepali and if you care spread the awareness and save our nation. Lets take the promise to bring change not just by words but by social awareness and by social change where our small effort counts and each individual matter to say that he or she is a part of this society and we can play a crucial role for the development of our country. Let’s make Nepal a better Nepal for the coming generation to be proud of where we can held our heads high to say we brought the change.

By Shreedeep Rayamajhi

Nepal's position paper for the Copenhagen Negotiations (COP15)

Nepal is a small landlocked country situated between massive global economy of China and India. Nepal has considerable stake admits its strategic location where climate changes has drastically affected its major resources including the fragile mountain ecosystem and most importantly the human settlement. With the unstable economy and label of under developing country, Nepal is struggling to meet the standards of globalization where it suffers in different ways social, financially and ecologically.

It lacks proper institutional, scientific and economic resources to adapt the climate changes making it more vulnerable to externalities of Climate change. Recent incidents of the glacial lake out-burst (Cho-Rolpa) in Nepal is the implications of the climate change which threats similar other glaciers and the whole Himalayan region.

Apart from the fossil fuels, deforestation and the changes in the land uses are also responsible for net increases in the carbon dioxide emissions where Nepal is moving towards adapting different strategies of Mitigation and Adaptation. Therefore, climate change seeks action at two major areas. First is the mitigation of the greenhouse gases and the second is the adaptation to the climate change.

Nepal’s Mitigation and Adaptation strategy towards Climate Change
Mitigation and adaptation are the strategic tools that deal with the cause and effect part of the global climate change. A mitigation strategy tries to eliminate the cause of global climate change whereas adaptation strategies try to minimize the adverse effects of the climate change.
-With the donor-driven Mitigation activities rather than the country driven, Nepal’s national priority is not the global environment but the local one. Moreover, the efforts have resulted in improvement of the local pollution, raising awareness, energy conservation, and technology transfer.

- Adaptation to the climate change is the area where Nepal has more stakes. Implications of the climate changes to the fragile mountain ecosystem, fresh water, and extreme weather events, agriculture, human health and others are taking its toll where the people living in the selected area are facing serious problems.

Main focus of the Conference

Focusing UFCCC and Kyoto protocol in implementing the Bali road Map: The Bali Roadmap mandates the implementation of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol, creating a secure, full, effective and sustained implementation of the UNFCCC with priority to mitigation, adaption, technology transfer and financial support. This will further help in reducing emission rate for developed countries according to the standard set under the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol.

Cooperation and Flexibility in responsibility: The developed national should take responsibility for the past degradation of the climate and further move on to reduce their emission with regards to the standards set according to future agreement. They should further help in assisting the most impacted countries with possible resources including technological transfer and take proactive measures to adapt and mitigate the climate change. The agreement should also focus on charging the high GHG emitting members according to their emission rate.

Creating an effective mechanism: The Conference should focus on creating an effective mechanism to adapt mitigation, adaption, technology transfer and financial support. It should give equal priorities to the weakest links giving them opportunity to stand up and facilitate them with effective resources. Nevertheless, financing and technology are indispensible means to achieve mitigation and adaptation where the mechanism should focus on the effective technology transfer.

Nepal’s position is very clear in context of COP 15, as climate change has hit us hard, so we believe in the implementation of Bali agreement and further move ahead with the second phase of Kyoto Protocol in adapting the most effective measures in reducing the Green house gas effect. The developed nation should further move to reduce their emission rate effectively in supporting the most impacted country in every possible way socially, financially and by transferring effective technologies.

Global warming or climate changes is a concern of everyone so the COP 15 should further move in cooperation and coalition addressing the needs and problems of the climate change in securing the future. The conference should also focus on giving substance to the voices of the smaller countries and try to understand the pragmatic grounds of developed nation. The efforts should be diverted towards a mutual point of being responsible in making united efforts of saving our earth.

Strategies of Adaptation

1. A new climate change agreement must consist of a shared vision to combat climate change and contain a clear regulatory framework that is valid for a long period of time, ideally until 2050, in order to provide enduring incentives for climate-friendly investments. Interim targets should also be established to trigger immediate action through incentives that are effective in the short-term. A system with medium and long-term targets is necessary both to give enterprises the necessary investment and planning security and to ensure that targets are met.
2. Development of innovative technologies and technology transfer. The development and application of innovative technologies and technology transfer are decisive to combat global climate change. So effective research and development need to be given adapting the best of what can be achieved.
3. The least developed countries and those facing the greatest threats should be supported in adapting to the consequences of climate change. The financial resources of the existing Adaptation Fund, which was established for this purpose, should be increased with grants from the public and the private sector. Industry can contribute to adaptation measures in particular through developing and providing appropriate technologies.
4. The international climate change agreement must aim to minimize competitive distortions on the markets through a globally uniform price for greenhouse gas emissions
5. Enhanced action on adaptation, dealing more specifically with:
Ø Objectives with respect to adapting to the impacts of climate change
Ø Supporting and undertaking the implementation of adaptation actions
Ø Addressing risk reduction, management and sharing of efforts to adapt to climate change
Ø Institutional arrangements to assist in the implementation of adaptation actions, and
Ø Monitoring and reviewing mechanisms for adaptation actions

Strategies of Mitigation

1. In order to combat climate change in a globally effective and cost-efficient way, the post-2012 agreement must include further development of the project-based on Kyoto Joint Implementation (JI) and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). These provide the opportunity to finance clean technologies and implement climate change measures in emerging and developing countries.
2. All efforts to reduce emissions must be measurable and verifiable as mentioned in the Bali Roadmap. An effective compliance system must be developed to enable transparent and verifiable comparison of the climate change efforts of the different countries. The post- Kyoto agreement must include an effective sanctioning mechanism for non-compliance with reduction targets. Improving CDM and JI
3. Development of innovative technologies and technology transfer is another aspect of Mitigation. The development and application of innovative technologies and technology transfer are decisive to combat global climate change.
4. CDM and JI projects should be used more widely for the transfer of environmental technologies as in view of the trend in the worldwide distribution of CO2 emissions, projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions would be particularly efficient and effective in developing and emerging countries.

5. Enhanced action on mitigation, dealing more specifically with:
Ø objectives with respect to adapting to the impacts of climate change
Ø supporting and undertaking the implementation of adaptation actions
Ø addressing risk reduction, management and sharing of efforts to adapt to climate change
Ø institutional arrangements to assist in the implementation of adaptation actions, and
Ø monitoring and reviewing mechanisms for adaptation actions
Many emerging countries such as China and India have considerable current account surpluses with which they are able to acquire technologies on the market. Developing countries need financial support to obtain key technologies for mitigating climate change.

Executive Summary

Nepal being an under developed country and having less emission rate certain portrays it preeminence but the impact of the climates change and GHG in it territory has been immense where it needs to further raise questions for mitigation and adaption. The past experiences of the temperature rise in the Himalayan region have brought inevitable conditions where the drastic changes have suffered the consequence in both Visual Appearance of snow melting and accidents.

There is no argument that, economic development policy of Nepal should not compromise with the policies to mitigate GHG emissions but Nepal’s policies should try to flow in cooperation creating an effective scenario of saving the changes by effective measure of both mitigation and adaption where effort counts.

Amid the changing environment a framework should be devised targeting the adaptation and mitigation measures, which would ensure a smooth flow of both excluding conflicting outcomes. The goal for long-term cooperation should be comprehensive that should consists of sustainable development, mitigation, adaptation, financing and technology adapting the developed to the least developed countries with addressing their need and problems. In terms of mitigation, the developed countries as a whole should reduce their GHG emissions according to the standard set by the conference on mutual understanding.
Thus the Copenhagen Climate Conference should focus on full, effective and sustained implementation of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol prioritizing positive outcome, for mitigation, adaptation, technology transfer and financial support.


COP- Conference of Parties
GHG- Green House Gas
GLOF- Glacial Lake Outburst Flooding
CDM- Clean Development Mechanism
UNFCCC- United National Framework Convention on Climate Change
REDD - Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries
NAMAs- Nature of nationally appropriate mitigation actions
IPCC- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

By Shreedeep Rayamajhi

Nuclear energy is not an option for combating Climate Change

Nuclear energy or power is an alternative solution for subsidizing the global green house gasses emission rate but is not a permanent solution [1]. As nuclear power is not a clean or renewable form of energy [6], so to an extent it can be used as an effective means of reducing the green house gasses emission rate but not a permanent solution where better option are being explored and new technologies are being developed.
Professing, the role of production of green house gasses, a large percentage of the emission is also related to electricity production where great quantities of fossil fuels are used in producing electricity. The Nuclear energy provides a better option in producing the non fossil electricity [1] but the high investment, dangers of radiation or inevitable risks of catastrophic nuclear accidents and also increases the threat of nuclear weapons expansion and research [6] [7].
It’s neither the cheapest of the non-fossil fuel alternatives, nor is it the cleanest, but still the demand of nuclear power is growing due to its flexibility of operation and mass energy production capacity [2].
Moreover, the booming of the renewable technologies has outstripped the nuclear power in development and performance, while ensuring the cost, effectiveness and efficiency, but is yet struggling to adapt the market. There are variable options like Wind Power, Solar Photo Voltaic, Solar Thermal, Geo Thermal, Hydro electricity; Bio Mass, Land gasses etc which are being explored and small fraction of it are being used in different parts of the world [4]. More or less, whether it’s nuclear or any form of energy, if it helps in reducing the rate of emission in any way should certainly be capitalized where its pros and cons should be well evaluated [3].
Now, looking back to the Nuclear energy prospects, the initial investment for setting up a nuclear plant may be huge or in billions but the average cost of producing nuclear energy is less than the cost of using fossil fuel or coal or hydroelectric which seems very lucrative and adaptive. Moving on the advancement in technology will bring the cost down further in the future but inherently the threats of nuclear power station also shadow its prospects [5].
Nuclear energy is well recognized as an alternative energy where its demand has reached to the priority of developed and developing nation. To the level, Nuclear power is regarded as one of the options available for alleviating the risk of global climate change and Green house gases s effects, where controversies are raised in and against the use of Nuclear power [4]. Further research and development is necessary in order to assess the technical and economical feasibility of those applications where the renewable options should be give chance on the basis of efficiency and effectiveness [3]. As it’s said that an effort of a person is not a worth but the idea is worth catching thousand of mind where we as an individual can make a difference.


1. In December 1997 governments met in Kyoto, Japan, where they agreed the Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, meaning that governments were committed to stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions to levels that would minimize climate change. The electricity generating sector contributes a large percentage of global greenhouse gas emissions by burning fossil fuels. Nuclear energy, along with renewable such as solar, wind and hydro generates electricity without greenhouse gas emissions.
Nuclear energy provides a fully developed non-fossil electricity generating option with the potential for large scale expansion. A continued steady growth of nuclear energy will allow countries to avoid emitting greenhouse gases from their electricity sector and help them to meet their Kyoto commitment.

2. In the United States, for example, no new nuclear power stations have been ordered since 1978. This has happened in a country which launched the Pressurized Water Reactor design and which houses many more nuclear reactors than any other country. Construction and operating costs have risen so dramatically, especially since the extra safety demands made after the accident at Three Mile Island, that some companies have faced bankruptcy.
In the United Kingdom, after a review of the privatization of the nuclear power industry, the government dismissed the industry’s demands for public funding to build new reactors to combat global warming. Six months later, British Energy cancelled two proposed stations, leaving the UK for the first time in over 40 years with no plans for new nuclear power stations.

3. In the Kyoto Protocol, agreed upon by the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December 1997, Annex I countries committed to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Also, the Protocol states that Annex I countries shall undertake promotion, research, development and increased use of new and renewable forms of energy, of carbon dioxide sequestration technologies and of advanced and innovative environmentally sound technologies. One important option that could be covered by the last phrase, and is not specifically mentioned, is nuclear energy which is essentially carbon free.
In this connection, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has investigated the role that nuclear power could play in alleviating the risk of global climate change. The main objective of the study is to provide a quantitative basis for assessing the consequences for the nuclear sector and for the reduction of GHG emissions of alternative nuclear development paths. The analysis covers the economic, financial, industrial and potential environmental effects of three alternative nuclear power development paths (“nuclear variants”).
Ø Variant I, “continued nuclear growth”, assumes that nuclear power capacity would grow steadily, reaching 1 120 GWe* in 2050.
Ø Variant II, “phase-out”, assumes that nuclear power would be phased out completely by 2045.
Ø Variant III, “stagnation followed by revival”, assumes early retirements of nuclear units in the short term (to 2015) followed by a revival of the nuclear option by 2020 leading to the same nuclear capacity in 2050 as in variant I.

4. Challenges for the Nuclear Industry
Ø Variant I: The main challenges would be to ensure that nuclear power retains and improves it economic competitive position relative to alternative energy sources, and to enhance public understanding and acceptance of nuclear power.
Ø Variant II: The nuclear sector will be challenged to meet the need for maintaining capabilities and know how to ensure the safe decommissioning of nuclear units and final disposal of radioactive wastes. Nuclear industries in a number of OECD countries have demonstrated already that capability. This variant might exacerbate challenges within the non nuclear energy sectors, in regard to long term security of supply and meeting UNFCCC commitments.
Ø Variant III: would challenge the nuclear industry to ensure that technical and economic preparedness would be maintained and enhanced during more than two decades of stagnation, in order to keep the nuclear option open. A revival of nuclear power by 2015 is assumed to be based upon technologies that are able to compete favorably with advanced fossil fuelled technologies, renewable sources and other options for alleviating the risk of global climate change.

5. Nuclear energy is expensive. It is in fact one of the least expensive energy sources. In 2004, the average cost of producing nuclear energy in the United States was less than two cents per kilowatt-hour, comparable with coal and hydroelectric. Advances in technology will bring the cost down further in the future.

6. Nuclear waste is produced at every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle, from uranium mining to the reprocessing of spent nuclear. Much of this waste will remain hazardous for thousands of years, leaving a deadly radioactive legacy to future generations.
At nuclear power stations, highly radioactive waste has to be regularly removed from the reactor and at most sites this spent fuel is being stored temporarily in water-filled cooling ponds. According to independent experts, the global quantity of spent fuel produced without a climate based radical expansion of nuclear power is expected to increase from 145,000 tones in 1994, to 322,000 tones by the year 2010. Whilst a variety of disposal methods have been under discussion for decades, there is still no demonstrated method for isolating nuclear waste from the environment for adequate time periods.
As part of the routine operation of every nuclear power station, some waste materials are also discharged directly into the environment. Liquid waste is discharged into the sea and gaseous waste is released into the atmosphere.

7. Nuclear Weapons: Uncontrollable World-wide Proliferation
Plutonium is an inevitable consequence of nuclear power production. The plutonium is contained in the spent nuclear fuel. It is one of the most radiotoxic and dangerous substances in existence. A single microgram, smaller than a speck of dust, can cause fatal cancer if inhaled or ingested and a sphere of plutonium smaller than a tennis ball can be used to make a nuclear bomb capable of killing many thousands of people.
The links between the civilian use of nuclear technology and military applications is one of the most disturbing aspects of the nuclear age. The very first, crude nuclear reactors were specifically built in the 1940s and 1950s to produce plutonium for the US, former Soviet Union and British bombs. Only later were they adapted to generate nuclear electricity.
As nuclear technology spreads around the globe, so does the risk of nuclear proliferation. Nuclear weapons can be constructed using plutonium from either military or civilian sources.

By Shreedeep Rayamajhi

Climate Change Combating Initiation in Nepal

Nepal is a small country in respect to development or globalization. From the past various efforts has been made to combat climate change or to control the emission of greenhouse gas, in this league the outlaw of the VIKRAM TEMPOs in 1999 was major step taken by the Nepal’s government in highlighting the adaptation measures against the green house gas emission .
The two stoke diesel Tempos not only emitted dangerous gases but were proving to be a threat to Kathmandu’s climate. Over the last two decades air pollution in Kathmandu had worsened due to increased of Nitrogen oxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and suspended particulate matter (SPM) levels. The move to ban two-stroke and diesel engine vehicles not only brought the issue of green house gas effect in lime light but on contrary befalls the ban on older vehicles in Nepal.

After that move, the government announced 22 point agenda to improve the vehicle emission level in the country along with the introduction of Nepal Vehicle Mass Emission Standard 2056 on 23 December 1999.

Likewise, with the fall of Vikram tempos, the Electric Vehicles (EVs) Safa Tempos were introduced as an alternative to support the old means of transportation. In recognition of the fall of the vital public system, Vikram Tempo owners were given subsidies, loans and tax free on import of vehicles that met the Euro- I standards. Since then, EVs or Safa Tempo, have been steadily increasing in numbers. Now, according to one of the retailer, Shree Eco Visionary (SEV), there are more than 1000 EVs plying Kathmandu streets handling more than 0.15 million people regularly on daily basis.

Nepal had introduced the first vehicle emission standard in 1995 after the completion of Nepal Kathmandu Valley Vehicle Emission Control Project submitted its report where the emission standard were often modified in the past with pressure from transport entrepreneurs, but now things have changed. The new Vehicle Mass Emission Standard 2056 has set 65 HSU (Hartridge Smoke Unit) for new diesel vehicles and 75 HSU for old ones. For petrol vehicles it was set at 3 percent Carbon Monoxide (CO) for new and 4.5 percent CO for old where the atmosphere of Kathmandu is at eased.

The Improvement in vehicular exhaust emissions came as a result of the government’s promptness in realizing the threat which further helped in channelizing and materializing the policies in assuring the enforcement of a progressively tighter vehicular emission standards where the policy are set in to protect and facilitate the climate.
By Shreedeep Rayamajhi

The Non State Actors in Climate Change diplomacy in Nepal

Non state actors are all the reaming forces except the state fighting against raising awareness about climates change. The force includes different stakeholders’ like public pressure groups, environment clubs, INGOs, Local NGOs etc. Most prominently in Nepal the INGOs are very active in raising the issues of climate change and its effects. The major of the organizations working in the field are given below:

World Wide Fund (WWF) Nepal
WWF is working to restore and reconnect natural landscapes across the Eastern Himalayas. By 2012, they aim to develop a shared vision with the governments of Nepal for the conservation and sustainable development of the Eastern Himalayas.World Wide Fund, has been actively working in Nepal for raising awareness.
Famed Nepalese climber Apa Sherpa reached the summit of the planet’s highest mountain on 21 May, 2009 and unfurled a WWF banner saying: "Stop Climate Change – Let the Himalayas Live!"As part of the Climate for Life Campaign, which aims to raise awareness of climate change impacts in the Himalayas, the expedition reminds world leaders of their responsibility towards preserving the region as a global heritage. And it calls on them to reach a global climate deal at Copenhagen this December.

International centre for integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD)
ICIMOD Nepal has been successfully working in the field of raising awareness in the Himalayan region where the changes have been prominent. It has organized different campaigns
Children express their concerns about climate change and its impact on their environment through art and letter writing competitions, - June, 2009

Himalaya – Changing Landscapes photo in Germany exhibition showcasing the prominent changes in the Himalayan region, - June 2009

Holding different international research for collecting data’s and working in the field to create awareness. More than 40 representatives from global conservation organizations in 15 countries met at a workshop organized by UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) and the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) in Kathmandu, Nepal, to discuss a strategy for coordinated research on global change in mountain biosphere reserves, and especially the possibilities for implementing the ‘Global Change in Mountain Regions’ research strategy (GLOCHAMORE) at different sites around the world, particularly in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region, -Nov 2008

The World Conservation Union (IUCN)
IUCN Nepal has been celebrating Environment Day every year, to renew public commitment towards the environment conservation and also help involve social sectors towards channeling environmental values and broadening public support for the cause. Every year the Organization celebrates the environment day to spread awareness about the increasing environment problems
The IUCN in collaboration with National Trust for Nature Conservation (NTNC), WWF Nepal and International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), will conduct scoping visits, organize multi-stakeholder consultations to review the draft constitutional provisions, and finalize the constitutional provisions on environmental rights. The project aims at mainstreaming environmental rights and sustainable development principles that represent the interests of all Nepali citizens, with particular attention to those of women, poor and marginalized people into the new constitution of Nepal.
IUCN had recently hosted the 4th Asia Regional Conservation forum in Nepal from September 10-14 2007 and I had covered the news. The regional conference covered the issues of growing energy demand in the region requiring more burning of fossil fuels and increase in greenhouse gas emission in the region. The conference had submitted it drafts and agenda to the related ministry but with the orthodox bureaucracy, it was stocked in pile with the rest.

A lot of activities and things are happening in Nepal regarding raising awareness of climate change. Most of them are either focused in spending their grant money or allocated money but to a level the people have been reached and awareness is flowing in a steadily way. But on real grounds, Nepal face turmoil due to lack of proper environment policy and the orthodox system that lacks effectiveness in monitoring and evaluating these INGOs and NGOs in regard to their work and reports forwarded by them.

By Shreedeep Rayamajhi

Saturday, August 15, 2009

Climate Change Negotiating delegation in Nepal

In Nepal the Ministry of Environment, Science & Technology(MoEST) is the national coordinator which deals for and against the issues, problems and awareness of environment. Though, the ministry receives a small amount from the yearly budget but the Ministry’s work has been limited to an extent.
The Ministry has adopted high priority over the vehicle pollution and its emission issue where recently it initiated the banned of two stoke tempos’ which emitted a lot of green house gases from the valley. Apart from that the ministry has also facilitated the use of the Electric vehicles (EV) known as the Safa Tempos. More or less, there are things happing where the ministry holds rallies and awareness campaign on environment day focusing the various aspects of pollution and conservation, but is limited and questionable.
Facilitating the environment, the Ministry in coordination with the Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation has established various programs of community forest and tree plantation which to an extent have given successful results in raising awareness about environment in the locals. Amid the limited resources, orthodox system and bureaucracy, this seems more than what could be expected.
Regarding the international organization, basically there are more than a dozen of international organizations working in the field; most prominently the International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), World wide fund (WWF) and IUCN are the basic organizations that work for the cause. The big INGOs with huge grants and funds, hosts various meeting and conferences in 5 star hotels where the donation money is waste in lavish parties. Contemplating the scenario only a negligible amount of money is spent on the real cause. These International organizations highlight their concern over the growing environmental problems within the reports and presentations which are just limited within conferences and meetings. On real ground nothing checks in where Million of dollars are being wasted in the name of awareness.
In one of my experience in a discussion program on climate change and its affects, one of the participant state that, “Nepal being a small country stands no point in the international arena. Our voice stand no where and our contribution towards green house gases is also very less but reality is global warming has hit us hard where physical evidences are clearly visible. In fact raising awareness in Nepal has no point because it would not effect in any way where our voice do no count in the international arena.”
The discussion ended in a controversial way but reality is do we need awareness because till the time powerful countries like US, and UK realize that their emission has affected the atmosphere and till the time they take action against it, I think raising awareness in somewhat like treating nose when u have a tooth ache.

By Shreedeep Rayamajhi

Anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the atmosphere

Emerging for the Stone Age, humans have demanded comfort and luxury at any cost where nature has suffered the consequence. From deforestation to industrialization, the drive of success, power and excellence has pushed the human race to exploit nature pounding on anything that was available. On one hand, we constantly exploited the resources where as on the other hand we neglected to take into account the by products like gases, smoke and chemicals that were discharged in the atmosphere, which result in chemical fusion and now today it has emerged as a green house effect.

To add treachery, the development of industrialization peaked, tussling in between countries where the industry smoked out gases as a competition for development. The situation worsened when massive deforestation was carried out in the name of settlement and survival.
Weakening the natural recycling mechanism was not a question or query then but today when it has brought big consequences where everybody is bound to think of their past, presence and future.

I strongly believe the international community should concentrate its effort to stabilized or lower the concentration of the green house gases. Moreover, the developed countries should share the large portion of their effort, time and money, as today’s situation has evolved on the base of their development where the entire world is suffering the consequences. The responsibility of greenhouse effect should be distributed to all the countries in respect to their size and development as we all in one or the other way we all have contributed our efforts to push it to this state.
Human development has landed us to this scenario where our development should focus in making the wrong into right. We all have played our parts now a time has come to unit and do a joint effort to make this planet safe and beautiful.

By Shreedeep Rayamajhi

Privacy and Security issues in Internet

I believe privacy and security are two prominent issues of internet governance that has been contradicting each other due to globalization and commercialization. From its establishment in early 70s, the internet has been proactive in adapting different fields where its expansion has not only brought it into lime light but virtually has attracted a lot of externalities and irregularities. Today, the internet is changing, what is new in a second can literally be out of date within minutes or hours or days. The e-marketing is also growing enabling the easy research and availability of the products and customers from one part of the world to another. One thing that makes internet more happening is its dynamism; internet business is very dynamic and absorbs everything. As once you upload anything it remains constant which is accessible to all within the ease of their fingers on 365 days basis which from commercialization point of view might be good but at times and situations might be scary and unavoidable. To be specific and short, the Internet is a global interconnected Network that facilitates the information exchange process. Internet compromises of millions of computers connected to each other by the helps of servers and clients. Unfortunately during the data transfer process, any computer in between the sender and receiver can easily see or obtain the data with using simple hacking tools like sniffer. For instance, if you want to buy a product online, you need to fill an online form giving your personal details as well as your credit card information. The data then travels from one server to another to the online shopping web server. During this transfer, someone might be watching the information in between. No one knows how often this happens but technically it’s possible and it’s happening. Apart from that it can be prohibited by encrypting the data but since encrypting program and software’s are very costly so it is often neglected by the online shopping administrators and thus the result in extraction of information by some hacker. This example shows that a person’s details go hand to hand with security and privacy issue as disclosure of personnel information deals as privacy issue and capturing the email by another third party deals with the security issue. Similarly, comparing it with the growing e-marketing is completely different scenario. As Especially in the Call center business a personal details like social security numbers, credit card numbers, address, phone no, personal details etc are sold and bought in the form of leads where the buyer pays hefty money for the lead of the clients. Reality is, it’s against the privacy issue but commercialization has controlled the e-marketing in such a way that malpractices like these are happening openly and uncontrollably. Likewise, For example a person staying in India makes a call in US stating that he is in US and asks for the client’s Credit card and other vital information. Though many questions have been raised against these issues but in a way or two security and privacy are breached everyday in one or the other form. From another angel, the freedom of expression used by the social networking sites like face book, HI5, Twitter, Flickr, Tagged etc has resulted in broadcasting false information by wrong doers using various alias. These websites allow free membership and facilitate the users with different tools like blogs, chartroom, forums, groups etc where innocent people are being falsely guided to wrong information and at time are bound to face the consequences. This is an unjustified advantage of internet privacy where the wrong doers are manipulating the security as well as the privacy issue. Nevertheless, the privacy and security issue are very vital part of each other which need to be balanced proportionately where breach of either is illegal but today with the growing internet and lack of effective standard policies and mechanism, people are manipulating the policies where the innocents are bound to suffer the consequences. The related associations should further act accordingly in securing the rights of personal as well as the whole system giving better opportunity for all in respect of equality and security.

By Shreedeep Rayamajhi

Internet Governance and its role

Today internet has adapted the form of daily lives of people; it basically has reached the level where people do everything in it, from expressing their feelings to their businesses. To an extent it has adapted as a personalized and daily commodity which is more used on daily basis just like any other basic commodity. From the personal information to the financial information to the deep secrets in the form of emails are all stored in the form of strings and variable where the security lies at risk of getting exploited due to lack of proper security policies and mechanism.

With the booming of internet, it has expanded the horizon in facilitating and introducing new services making it possible to virtually do anything that can be thought of whereas on contrary; the internet has also developed various threats and weakness. These loop holes are manipulated by wrong doers in exploiting the innocent which are further mentioned below.

More or less, policies and mechanism have been developed but are very limited and prepared according to the feasibility of developed nation where the developing and underdeveloped countries lies at the stake of uncertainty. This gap between the developed counties and remaining has resulted in a conflict where rules and regulation remains stagnant to each other giving space for externalities and irregularities. This situation has led into manipulation and exploitation where child abuse, cyber crimes, identity theft, copyrights issue, hacking etc are in the trend of rise. Whether it’s about hacking or child exploitation or pornography, internet security today is the most vulnerable issue whish demand a proper mechanism and regulation. Due to absence of standardization in policies and mechanism the externalities are materializing to a new level where it’s establishing itself as threat to everyone in one or the other form. However, the issue of security is high on alert where especially developing and underdeveloped countries are suffering the consequence due to the laps of standard security policy. The time demands standardization in every aspect of internet where growth and further prospect surely depends on that.

According to Jeremy Malcolm, “Multi-stakeholder governance is a fresh approach to the development of public policy, bringing together governments, the private sector and civil society in partnership. The movement towards this new governance paradigm has been most marked in areas involving global networks of stakeholders, too intricate to be represented by governments alone. Nowhere is this better illustrated than on the Internet, where it is an inherent characteristic of the network that laws, and the conduct to which those laws are directed, will cross national borders.”

Thus, the concept of Internet Governance Forum (IGF) is a dynamic approach which gives opportunities to multi stake holders in overcoming the various aspects of net neutrality and digital divide. It also helps in further accessing to establish a uniform mechanism addressing the needs of all the stakeholders from developed countries to developing and underdeveloped countries. Especially the vacuum between the developed and developing /underdeveloped countries needs a certain platform which would address their problems and issues. It would further help in highlighting the corporate or social responsibility prioritizing the rights of information access by completely abolishing discrimination. I strongly believe that IGF is an effective tool which needs to be reviewed as a weapon against irregularities and externalities where the developed nation should endorse it for future growth and prospects.

Advantages of IGF

* A board platform to address issues and problems
* A standard policy and mechanism to address the problems of world over
* Control over digital divide and net neutrality
*No bias system
*Equal opportunity of business and exposure
* Bilateral relationship
* Effectiveness in growth and monitoring of internet
* Issue like pornography, cyber crimes, hacking and exploitation can be easily overcome
* Better security policies

Disadvantages of IGF

* Hard to control and monitor due to number of countries
* Hard for developing and under developed to keep up with developed countries in terms of technology and manpower
* Standard policies means competition which would be hard for underdeveloped and developing countries

Shreedeep Rayamajhi

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