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Showing posts with label Climate Change. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Climate Change. Show all posts

Thursday, May 19, 2016

Everest at its peak of its limitation: 464 people in 4 days

Opening after 2 years, this season Everest seems to be overcrowded with people and more excitement. After the  devastating earthquake things have completely changed, the numbers have gone up with more people coming back to scale Everest.  It has been officially reported that around 464 climbers, have been scheduled to climb Everest in the next four days. Surprising but its true, though many tourists and climbers died last season during the devastating earthquake  still the name and fame of Everest has not gone down. But 464 people in 4 days seems like over the top number but the reality bites. I think the Government of Nepal needs to seriously think about these high numbers. Its a complete exploitation of the natural resource and pushing it to the limits is not a good sign.

Royalty can be an effective revenue generation but every step that marks Everest leaves behind some form of climatic and carbon trace at Everest as well. We need to evaluate and think about the consequences of crowding people at Everest. It is not a joke that so many people are living and breathing in that ecosystem  that is so fragile and delicate.

Now when the climate change is directly affecting Everest region the huge number of people interested in Everest certainly adds more problem to current. It may look good from the income generation perspective but from climate change and ecology perspective its harshly affecting the delicate environment which is build upon thousand of years of conditioning.

We have to think about the image and other impacts,  its not just the people, its their waste, their carbon foot print which make a huge difference rather than the royalty that they pay.

The whole Everest region ecosystem is on the verge of risk  due to various contamination in such condition the numbers shooting up certainly showcases how careless and blind our government is towards Everest.

Thursday, November 17, 2011

Everest Region and Human waste a problem

Climate change has been a global issue of talks especially in big conferences and seminars but when it comes to ground reality it always lacks its practicability in different areas of application. Climate change is an issue of development and growth which is hard to overcome. Like said that climate change issues have not only evolved as a big problem but it also threatens its victim with the by-products that are more alerting.

On contrary it also highlights as a powerful sector of investment and opportunities with dues of limited accessibility and contradiction. Reality is it has been a constant issue of talks for what must be done on the controversial side where nobody talks about it’s by products and its hard affects which is more or less important. To be specific especially for a country like Nepal with limited Green house gas emission rate of 0.11 per person per country which is anything and still the effects of climate change is clearly visible in Nepal. Blaming climate change as the main cause of problems if you look at Nepal’s situation it is very vivid to its practices of how, and what is happening here.

From the melting of the Glacier due to temperature rise in the Himalayan region to the farming externalities of pest, climate change has been an issue of attracting donor money with no end results. Sorting the techniques climate change not only initiates cons but it also has its pros with profitable applications which to some extent shadows in. Sidelining these issues these days a new issue has evolved in the Himalayan region. The current problem other than temperature rise in the Himalayan region is taking shape of immediate attention highlighting the lack of proper waste management. Though the government with its stipulated rules and regulation has created provision of liaison officer and checking waste management but more or less to its practicality the lack of moderation certainly is piling up the Everest region with waste that are visible and waste that not visible(human waste) .

Under the Mountaineering Rules and Regulation 2059, under section 15 sub head of Functions and Duties of a Mountain Guide, it is clearly stated To bring back the garbage that came out above the base camp while using any commodity to the base camp compulsorily similarly under .

Section 27 titled Classification and Management of Garbage defines following points:

(1)The garbage shall be classified for the purpose of garbage management used by the mountaineering expedition team as follows:

(a) Garbage which can be destroyed

(b) Garbage which can be recycled

(c) Garbage which his to be re imported

(2)The materials to be considered the garbage pursuant to sub rule (1) shall be as prescribed in Schedule –10.

Schedule 10

(Relating to sub rule (2) of Rule 27)

The materials to be considered as garbage

The following materials shall come under the following garbage:-

(a) Garbage which can be destroyed: Toilet paper, paper, cardboard, things made from bamboo, jute and cotton bag, decomposed food or dead body.

(b) Garbage which can be recycled: Tin, bottle, jar, plastic can, plastic shit, reusable gas cylinder, and plastic bag or gas container.

(c)Garbage which has to be re-imported: Used oxygen bottle, used battery, equipment to be used for climbing or personnel goods etc.

Surfacing the fact of the application and visibility few attempts have been made in bring back the visible waste but what about the bio hazardous ( Human Waste). Can you imagine your waste being frozen there for ages and still have the potentiality of being harmful for the environment? It’s like time stops where everything else is frozen. The effects of lack of waste management are visible.

During the summer season when the snow melts dead crops of mountaineers can be seen in unreachable areas lying abandon. Likewise with the threat of melting down of the glacier the lack of management of waste in the Everest region has significantly triggered the utmost need of managing the human waste there. Though limited efforts have been done with collecting human waste through the waste bags in the lower region of the Everest but a condition to rethink about the upper region certainly hinder to consider about the waste management process.

In a report of United Nation Environment Program, states “ Concentrated visitor activity in mountain areas generates significant amounts of both solid waste and wastewater, which can pollute water and soil through improper storage and disposal. Solid waste can build up from food and beverage consumption and the disposal of used packaging, supplies and equipment. Certain types of waste, including pharmaceuticals, personal products and cleaning products may contain dangerous chemicals that can harm local ecosystems, wildlife or people. Accidental or poorly managed discharges of oils and fuels from vehicles, vessels or equipment can be a significant source of water or soil pollution. Wastewater and sewage from facilities, water craft and animals, such as sled dogs and horses, can also easily pollute freshwater resources, particularly since human and other wastes and chemicals break down more slowly in alpine areas.”

Till date it is estimated that more than 1million people have reached the Everest region from the time of its first scale and their waste lies as a ticking time bomb frozen and waiting for the right time to be released with all its fury. It certainly can ruin the mountain environment and its surrounding ecosystem. Huge efforts are made to stop garbage and littering in Everest region but a less ignored area is the human waste which is certainly more threatening and being ignored. More specific policies are needed with better mechanisms to curb this problem or else Everest region will be yet another environmental disaster.

Shreedeep Rayamajhi

Wednesday, October 19, 2011

Climate change problem and its ground reality in Nepal

Climate change has been a topic of discussion since past few years, its relevancy and awareness has spread with the confusion among the different stake holders regarding its work methodology and its practices. With high priority and concern, large amount of international funds has been poured-in in regards to the climate change activities and campaigns where the awareness spread in the field has not only created a trend of awareness but to a level has created a confusion among the different entities to work together for the cause. The basic entities in the field of climate change in Nepal have been working individually in regards to their sectors and work practices. In Nepal the work entities have been basically divided in these categories
1. Donor
2. Line agencies
3. The government4. Local organization
5. Consumer

The different categories of organization work at different levels of action and awareness strategy where the government and line agencies work in policy and strategy level. The government role is immense in respect to the services that it provides through its different organizations but due to lack of infrastructure and mobility in the rural areas the human resources are limited within the urban area where the rural people lack the services which they are in dire need of. The Donor organization works in providing funds and receiving the feedbacks only. Local organization works in collaboration of the line agencies and government in following the strategies in action. At consumer level they work toward the adaptation and adaptability of the problem where lack of coordination and planning has been hindering the prospect of investment and research.

Especially in a country like Nepal where the education rate is very low, People know that changes are happening and they are adapting to it but they lack the technical knowhow of what, where and how?
Looking at the scenario and economic condition of Nepal and its pollution rates, Nepal stand nowhere to talk about its contribution in Green house gases emission rates but consequently it faces a huge price of global warming and climate change in retrospect to its adaptability and consequences.

The world Wild Life Nepal in its website says, “Communities in the target area are facing the natural hazards such as landslides, earthquakes and forest fires. Serious drought, temperature increases, and flash flooding are causing serious detrimental impacts on community livelihoods – causing food insecurity; lack of access to freshwater for irrigation and household needs; soil erosion; damage to infrastructure (including irrigation systems, land, property and roads); increase in pests and diseases, and changes to ecosystems (including NTFPs). These hazards are in part as a result of non-climate drivers (such as land use changes, unsustainable use of natural resources, governance, tourism) but are exacerbated by climatic variability. Communities in the target area do not have adequate access to information on climate data and local planning structures (including Village Development Committee Plans, and Buffer Zone Management Plans) have not taken into account risks as a result of climate change. WWF will play a crucial role in working with communities to ensure risks to ecosystem integrity (and therefore ecosystem services) are minimized; thereby building on existing or developing new relationships with other NGOs, private sector organizations, government agencies or research institutions to ensure all vulnerabilities facing people and the natural environment are addressed.”

Climate change has been an effective sector of funding where different Non government organizations are mushrooming in. According to a report from the Centre District Office there are thousands of organizations registered or that have the work capability to work in the field of climate change. Though different NGOs are operational but most of them are limited within bring funds and lack real operational skills where the government lack of monitoring mechanism has boosted their confidence.

Like such Saurav Dhakal, British Council International Climate Champion 2010/11 recently shared his experience of the ground reality of the climate change and its adaptation problems that he encountered during his visit to far rural villages of Dailekh and Terahthum. He shared some key points in his study report of “Adaptation learning highways” which are given below.

Community perception on climate change:

  • Delay and reduced snowfall
  • Delay in erratic rainfall
  • Prolonged dry spells
  • Water stress
  • Increased pest incident
  • Early maturing of crops and new crop opportunities

Dhakal further highlighted the issues and gaps of climate change in following key points.

  • Lack of mechanism or existing mechanism is not actively functioning to discuss on farmers problem and technical backstopping on problem
  • Lack of technical backstopping for farmers to solve the problem in field level from line agencies. Most of the technical service providers agencies are centered in district headquarters
  • Less information on adaptation of farming techniques and seed methodology
  • Less knowledge on responsibilities of line agencies toward farmers
  • Lack of effective information flow system
  • Lack of introduction of new technology in adaptation of farming techniques
  • Lack of effective human resource in the field

He said, “People in rural parts of Nepal they majorly lack knowledge sharing and most importantly they are unaware of the resources that are available to reduces the effective of climate change. It’s a worrying situation especially in rural villages where prominent changes are happening and people have no idea of what’s happening. The awareness program of line agencies has reached places but they are inconclusive way limited to center and cities where people in rural areas are confused. The government needs to collaborate in a proper mechanism in dealing with such scenario where the gaps in between the line agencies, and the people should be overcome. The ultimate goal is to provide relief to the public where a reality check needs to be done from all sides and proper efforts have to be done in dealing with the situation.”

Ministry of Environment (MoE) in its portal states, “The Government of Nepal, Ministry of Environment (MoE) has received support from the Embassy of Denmark in Nepal to implement climate change activities. The MoE prepared, through this support, the status report while participating the 15th session of the Conference of the Parties to UNFCCC and 5th session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties (CMP) to the KP. In addition, this funding was also used to prepare and publish the Status of Climate Change in Nepal. The MoE has felt an urgent need for preparing Strategy for Climate Change Strategy and Framework for Climate Change Fund from this support within the broader framework of the Climate Change Policy, 2011. This strategy is expected to streamline all climate change activities in Nepal and include negotiation approaches and will contribute to future climate change negotiations as well. Similarly, the framework for climate change fund will provide a basis to channelize funding on climate change activities received from different sources in the country. The Ministry of Environment intends to prepare the Climate Change Strategy and Framework for Climate Change Fund by procuring consulting services. The key output of this study will be the final reports on: (i) Climate Change Strategy; and (ii) Framework for Climate Change Fund.”

With stakeholders of climate change being more focused in managing the funds and other operational issues climate change industry in Nepal has been a booming industry. The reality of the rural villages and lack of effective human resource in addressing the issue has evolved as a serious problem. Lack of monitoring from the government side and effective mechanism to upgrade the human resource and to outreach the people seems to be the problem at large. Climate change in Nepal has been an issue of concern to all where lack of coordination among the stakeholder hiders the process of awareness and adaptation.

Further climate change strategy and adaptation perspective can be gained from the following link

Sunday, August 16, 2009

Nepal's position paper for the Copenhagen Negotiations (COP15)

Nepal is a small landlocked country situated between massive global economy of China and India. Nepal has considerable stake admits its strategic location where climate changes has drastically affected its major resources including the fragile mountain ecosystem and most importantly the human settlement. With the unstable economy and label of under developing country, Nepal is struggling to meet the standards of globalization where it suffers in different ways social, financially and ecologically.

It lacks proper institutional, scientific and economic resources to adapt the climate changes making it more vulnerable to externalities of Climate change. Recent incidents of the glacial lake out-burst (Cho-Rolpa) in Nepal is the implications of the climate change which threats similar other glaciers and the whole Himalayan region.

Apart from the fossil fuels, deforestation and the changes in the land uses are also responsible for net increases in the carbon dioxide emissions where Nepal is moving towards adapting different strategies of Mitigation and Adaptation. Therefore, climate change seeks action at two major areas. First is the mitigation of the greenhouse gases and the second is the adaptation to the climate change.

Nepal’s Mitigation and Adaptation strategy towards Climate Change
Mitigation and adaptation are the strategic tools that deal with the cause and effect part of the global climate change. A mitigation strategy tries to eliminate the cause of global climate change whereas adaptation strategies try to minimize the adverse effects of the climate change.
-With the donor-driven Mitigation activities rather than the country driven, Nepal’s national priority is not the global environment but the local one. Moreover, the efforts have resulted in improvement of the local pollution, raising awareness, energy conservation, and technology transfer.

- Adaptation to the climate change is the area where Nepal has more stakes. Implications of the climate changes to the fragile mountain ecosystem, fresh water, and extreme weather events, agriculture, human health and others are taking its toll where the people living in the selected area are facing serious problems.

Main focus of the Conference

Focusing UFCCC and Kyoto protocol in implementing the Bali road Map: The Bali Roadmap mandates the implementation of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol, creating a secure, full, effective and sustained implementation of the UNFCCC with priority to mitigation, adaption, technology transfer and financial support. This will further help in reducing emission rate for developed countries according to the standard set under the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol.

Cooperation and Flexibility in responsibility: The developed national should take responsibility for the past degradation of the climate and further move on to reduce their emission with regards to the standards set according to future agreement. They should further help in assisting the most impacted countries with possible resources including technological transfer and take proactive measures to adapt and mitigate the climate change. The agreement should also focus on charging the high GHG emitting members according to their emission rate.

Creating an effective mechanism: The Conference should focus on creating an effective mechanism to adapt mitigation, adaption, technology transfer and financial support. It should give equal priorities to the weakest links giving them opportunity to stand up and facilitate them with effective resources. Nevertheless, financing and technology are indispensible means to achieve mitigation and adaptation where the mechanism should focus on the effective technology transfer.

Nepal’s position is very clear in context of COP 15, as climate change has hit us hard, so we believe in the implementation of Bali agreement and further move ahead with the second phase of Kyoto Protocol in adapting the most effective measures in reducing the Green house gas effect. The developed nation should further move to reduce their emission rate effectively in supporting the most impacted country in every possible way socially, financially and by transferring effective technologies.

Global warming or climate changes is a concern of everyone so the COP 15 should further move in cooperation and coalition addressing the needs and problems of the climate change in securing the future. The conference should also focus on giving substance to the voices of the smaller countries and try to understand the pragmatic grounds of developed nation. The efforts should be diverted towards a mutual point of being responsible in making united efforts of saving our earth.

Strategies of Adaptation

1. A new climate change agreement must consist of a shared vision to combat climate change and contain a clear regulatory framework that is valid for a long period of time, ideally until 2050, in order to provide enduring incentives for climate-friendly investments. Interim targets should also be established to trigger immediate action through incentives that are effective in the short-term. A system with medium and long-term targets is necessary both to give enterprises the necessary investment and planning security and to ensure that targets are met.
2. Development of innovative technologies and technology transfer. The development and application of innovative technologies and technology transfer are decisive to combat global climate change. So effective research and development need to be given adapting the best of what can be achieved.
3. The least developed countries and those facing the greatest threats should be supported in adapting to the consequences of climate change. The financial resources of the existing Adaptation Fund, which was established for this purpose, should be increased with grants from the public and the private sector. Industry can contribute to adaptation measures in particular through developing and providing appropriate technologies.
4. The international climate change agreement must aim to minimize competitive distortions on the markets through a globally uniform price for greenhouse gas emissions
5. Enhanced action on adaptation, dealing more specifically with:
Ø Objectives with respect to adapting to the impacts of climate change
Ø Supporting and undertaking the implementation of adaptation actions
Ø Addressing risk reduction, management and sharing of efforts to adapt to climate change
Ø Institutional arrangements to assist in the implementation of adaptation actions, and
Ø Monitoring and reviewing mechanisms for adaptation actions

Strategies of Mitigation

1. In order to combat climate change in a globally effective and cost-efficient way, the post-2012 agreement must include further development of the project-based on Kyoto Joint Implementation (JI) and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). These provide the opportunity to finance clean technologies and implement climate change measures in emerging and developing countries.
2. All efforts to reduce emissions must be measurable and verifiable as mentioned in the Bali Roadmap. An effective compliance system must be developed to enable transparent and verifiable comparison of the climate change efforts of the different countries. The post- Kyoto agreement must include an effective sanctioning mechanism for non-compliance with reduction targets. Improving CDM and JI
3. Development of innovative technologies and technology transfer is another aspect of Mitigation. The development and application of innovative technologies and technology transfer are decisive to combat global climate change.
4. CDM and JI projects should be used more widely for the transfer of environmental technologies as in view of the trend in the worldwide distribution of CO2 emissions, projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions would be particularly efficient and effective in developing and emerging countries.

5. Enhanced action on mitigation, dealing more specifically with:
Ø objectives with respect to adapting to the impacts of climate change
Ø supporting and undertaking the implementation of adaptation actions
Ø addressing risk reduction, management and sharing of efforts to adapt to climate change
Ø institutional arrangements to assist in the implementation of adaptation actions, and
Ø monitoring and reviewing mechanisms for adaptation actions
Many emerging countries such as China and India have considerable current account surpluses with which they are able to acquire technologies on the market. Developing countries need financial support to obtain key technologies for mitigating climate change.

Executive Summary

Nepal being an under developed country and having less emission rate certain portrays it preeminence but the impact of the climates change and GHG in it territory has been immense where it needs to further raise questions for mitigation and adaption. The past experiences of the temperature rise in the Himalayan region have brought inevitable conditions where the drastic changes have suffered the consequence in both Visual Appearance of snow melting and accidents.

There is no argument that, economic development policy of Nepal should not compromise with the policies to mitigate GHG emissions but Nepal’s policies should try to flow in cooperation creating an effective scenario of saving the changes by effective measure of both mitigation and adaption where effort counts.

Amid the changing environment a framework should be devised targeting the adaptation and mitigation measures, which would ensure a smooth flow of both excluding conflicting outcomes. The goal for long-term cooperation should be comprehensive that should consists of sustainable development, mitigation, adaptation, financing and technology adapting the developed to the least developed countries with addressing their need and problems. In terms of mitigation, the developed countries as a whole should reduce their GHG emissions according to the standard set by the conference on mutual understanding.
Thus the Copenhagen Climate Conference should focus on full, effective and sustained implementation of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol prioritizing positive outcome, for mitigation, adaptation, technology transfer and financial support.


COP- Conference of Parties
GHG- Green House Gas
GLOF- Glacial Lake Outburst Flooding
CDM- Clean Development Mechanism
UNFCCC- United National Framework Convention on Climate Change
REDD - Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries
NAMAs- Nature of nationally appropriate mitigation actions
IPCC- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

By Shreedeep Rayamajhi

Nuclear energy is not an option for combating Climate Change

Nuclear energy or power is an alternative solution for subsidizing the global green house gasses emission rate but is not a permanent solution [1]. As nuclear power is not a clean or renewable form of energy [6], so to an extent it can be used as an effective means of reducing the green house gasses emission rate but not a permanent solution where better option are being explored and new technologies are being developed.
Professing, the role of production of green house gasses, a large percentage of the emission is also related to electricity production where great quantities of fossil fuels are used in producing electricity. The Nuclear energy provides a better option in producing the non fossil electricity [1] but the high investment, dangers of radiation or inevitable risks of catastrophic nuclear accidents and also increases the threat of nuclear weapons expansion and research [6] [7].
It’s neither the cheapest of the non-fossil fuel alternatives, nor is it the cleanest, but still the demand of nuclear power is growing due to its flexibility of operation and mass energy production capacity [2].
Moreover, the booming of the renewable technologies has outstripped the nuclear power in development and performance, while ensuring the cost, effectiveness and efficiency, but is yet struggling to adapt the market. There are variable options like Wind Power, Solar Photo Voltaic, Solar Thermal, Geo Thermal, Hydro electricity; Bio Mass, Land gasses etc which are being explored and small fraction of it are being used in different parts of the world [4]. More or less, whether it’s nuclear or any form of energy, if it helps in reducing the rate of emission in any way should certainly be capitalized where its pros and cons should be well evaluated [3].
Now, looking back to the Nuclear energy prospects, the initial investment for setting up a nuclear plant may be huge or in billions but the average cost of producing nuclear energy is less than the cost of using fossil fuel or coal or hydroelectric which seems very lucrative and adaptive. Moving on the advancement in technology will bring the cost down further in the future but inherently the threats of nuclear power station also shadow its prospects [5].
Nuclear energy is well recognized as an alternative energy where its demand has reached to the priority of developed and developing nation. To the level, Nuclear power is regarded as one of the options available for alleviating the risk of global climate change and Green house gases s effects, where controversies are raised in and against the use of Nuclear power [4]. Further research and development is necessary in order to assess the technical and economical feasibility of those applications where the renewable options should be give chance on the basis of efficiency and effectiveness [3]. As it’s said that an effort of a person is not a worth but the idea is worth catching thousand of mind where we as an individual can make a difference.


1. In December 1997 governments met in Kyoto, Japan, where they agreed the Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, meaning that governments were committed to stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions to levels that would minimize climate change. The electricity generating sector contributes a large percentage of global greenhouse gas emissions by burning fossil fuels. Nuclear energy, along with renewable such as solar, wind and hydro generates electricity without greenhouse gas emissions.
Nuclear energy provides a fully developed non-fossil electricity generating option with the potential for large scale expansion. A continued steady growth of nuclear energy will allow countries to avoid emitting greenhouse gases from their electricity sector and help them to meet their Kyoto commitment.

2. In the United States, for example, no new nuclear power stations have been ordered since 1978. This has happened in a country which launched the Pressurized Water Reactor design and which houses many more nuclear reactors than any other country. Construction and operating costs have risen so dramatically, especially since the extra safety demands made after the accident at Three Mile Island, that some companies have faced bankruptcy.
In the United Kingdom, after a review of the privatization of the nuclear power industry, the government dismissed the industry’s demands for public funding to build new reactors to combat global warming. Six months later, British Energy cancelled two proposed stations, leaving the UK for the first time in over 40 years with no plans for new nuclear power stations.

3. In the Kyoto Protocol, agreed upon by the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December 1997, Annex I countries committed to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Also, the Protocol states that Annex I countries shall undertake promotion, research, development and increased use of new and renewable forms of energy, of carbon dioxide sequestration technologies and of advanced and innovative environmentally sound technologies. One important option that could be covered by the last phrase, and is not specifically mentioned, is nuclear energy which is essentially carbon free.
In this connection, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has investigated the role that nuclear power could play in alleviating the risk of global climate change. The main objective of the study is to provide a quantitative basis for assessing the consequences for the nuclear sector and for the reduction of GHG emissions of alternative nuclear development paths. The analysis covers the economic, financial, industrial and potential environmental effects of three alternative nuclear power development paths (“nuclear variants”).
Ø Variant I, “continued nuclear growth”, assumes that nuclear power capacity would grow steadily, reaching 1 120 GWe* in 2050.
Ø Variant II, “phase-out”, assumes that nuclear power would be phased out completely by 2045.
Ø Variant III, “stagnation followed by revival”, assumes early retirements of nuclear units in the short term (to 2015) followed by a revival of the nuclear option by 2020 leading to the same nuclear capacity in 2050 as in variant I.

4. Challenges for the Nuclear Industry
Ø Variant I: The main challenges would be to ensure that nuclear power retains and improves it economic competitive position relative to alternative energy sources, and to enhance public understanding and acceptance of nuclear power.
Ø Variant II: The nuclear sector will be challenged to meet the need for maintaining capabilities and know how to ensure the safe decommissioning of nuclear units and final disposal of radioactive wastes. Nuclear industries in a number of OECD countries have demonstrated already that capability. This variant might exacerbate challenges within the non nuclear energy sectors, in regard to long term security of supply and meeting UNFCCC commitments.
Ø Variant III: would challenge the nuclear industry to ensure that technical and economic preparedness would be maintained and enhanced during more than two decades of stagnation, in order to keep the nuclear option open. A revival of nuclear power by 2015 is assumed to be based upon technologies that are able to compete favorably with advanced fossil fuelled technologies, renewable sources and other options for alleviating the risk of global climate change.

5. Nuclear energy is expensive. It is in fact one of the least expensive energy sources. In 2004, the average cost of producing nuclear energy in the United States was less than two cents per kilowatt-hour, comparable with coal and hydroelectric. Advances in technology will bring the cost down further in the future.

6. Nuclear waste is produced at every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle, from uranium mining to the reprocessing of spent nuclear. Much of this waste will remain hazardous for thousands of years, leaving a deadly radioactive legacy to future generations.
At nuclear power stations, highly radioactive waste has to be regularly removed from the reactor and at most sites this spent fuel is being stored temporarily in water-filled cooling ponds. According to independent experts, the global quantity of spent fuel produced without a climate based radical expansion of nuclear power is expected to increase from 145,000 tones in 1994, to 322,000 tones by the year 2010. Whilst a variety of disposal methods have been under discussion for decades, there is still no demonstrated method for isolating nuclear waste from the environment for adequate time periods.
As part of the routine operation of every nuclear power station, some waste materials are also discharged directly into the environment. Liquid waste is discharged into the sea and gaseous waste is released into the atmosphere.

7. Nuclear Weapons: Uncontrollable World-wide Proliferation
Plutonium is an inevitable consequence of nuclear power production. The plutonium is contained in the spent nuclear fuel. It is one of the most radiotoxic and dangerous substances in existence. A single microgram, smaller than a speck of dust, can cause fatal cancer if inhaled or ingested and a sphere of plutonium smaller than a tennis ball can be used to make a nuclear bomb capable of killing many thousands of people.
The links between the civilian use of nuclear technology and military applications is one of the most disturbing aspects of the nuclear age. The very first, crude nuclear reactors were specifically built in the 1940s and 1950s to produce plutonium for the US, former Soviet Union and British bombs. Only later were they adapted to generate nuclear electricity.
As nuclear technology spreads around the globe, so does the risk of nuclear proliferation. Nuclear weapons can be constructed using plutonium from either military or civilian sources.

By Shreedeep Rayamajhi

Climate Change Combating Initiation in Nepal

Nepal is a small country in respect to development or globalization. From the past various efforts has been made to combat climate change or to control the emission of greenhouse gas, in this league the outlaw of the VIKRAM TEMPOs in 1999 was major step taken by the Nepal’s government in highlighting the adaptation measures against the green house gas emission .
The two stoke diesel Tempos not only emitted dangerous gases but were proving to be a threat to Kathmandu’s climate. Over the last two decades air pollution in Kathmandu had worsened due to increased of Nitrogen oxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and suspended particulate matter (SPM) levels. The move to ban two-stroke and diesel engine vehicles not only brought the issue of green house gas effect in lime light but on contrary befalls the ban on older vehicles in Nepal.

After that move, the government announced 22 point agenda to improve the vehicle emission level in the country along with the introduction of Nepal Vehicle Mass Emission Standard 2056 on 23 December 1999.

Likewise, with the fall of Vikram tempos, the Electric Vehicles (EVs) Safa Tempos were introduced as an alternative to support the old means of transportation. In recognition of the fall of the vital public system, Vikram Tempo owners were given subsidies, loans and tax free on import of vehicles that met the Euro- I standards. Since then, EVs or Safa Tempo, have been steadily increasing in numbers. Now, according to one of the retailer, Shree Eco Visionary (SEV), there are more than 1000 EVs plying Kathmandu streets handling more than 0.15 million people regularly on daily basis.

Nepal had introduced the first vehicle emission standard in 1995 after the completion of Nepal Kathmandu Valley Vehicle Emission Control Project submitted its report where the emission standard were often modified in the past with pressure from transport entrepreneurs, but now things have changed. The new Vehicle Mass Emission Standard 2056 has set 65 HSU (Hartridge Smoke Unit) for new diesel vehicles and 75 HSU for old ones. For petrol vehicles it was set at 3 percent Carbon Monoxide (CO) for new and 4.5 percent CO for old where the atmosphere of Kathmandu is at eased.

The Improvement in vehicular exhaust emissions came as a result of the government’s promptness in realizing the threat which further helped in channelizing and materializing the policies in assuring the enforcement of a progressively tighter vehicular emission standards where the policy are set in to protect and facilitate the climate.
By Shreedeep Rayamajhi

The Non State Actors in Climate Change diplomacy in Nepal

Non state actors are all the reaming forces except the state fighting against raising awareness about climates change. The force includes different stakeholders’ like public pressure groups, environment clubs, INGOs, Local NGOs etc. Most prominently in Nepal the INGOs are very active in raising the issues of climate change and its effects. The major of the organizations working in the field are given below:

World Wide Fund (WWF) Nepal
WWF is working to restore and reconnect natural landscapes across the Eastern Himalayas. By 2012, they aim to develop a shared vision with the governments of Nepal for the conservation and sustainable development of the Eastern Himalayas.World Wide Fund, has been actively working in Nepal for raising awareness.
Famed Nepalese climber Apa Sherpa reached the summit of the planet’s highest mountain on 21 May, 2009 and unfurled a WWF banner saying: "Stop Climate Change – Let the Himalayas Live!"As part of the Climate for Life Campaign, which aims to raise awareness of climate change impacts in the Himalayas, the expedition reminds world leaders of their responsibility towards preserving the region as a global heritage. And it calls on them to reach a global climate deal at Copenhagen this December.

International centre for integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD)
ICIMOD Nepal has been successfully working in the field of raising awareness in the Himalayan region where the changes have been prominent. It has organized different campaigns
Children express their concerns about climate change and its impact on their environment through art and letter writing competitions, - June, 2009

Himalaya – Changing Landscapes photo in Germany exhibition showcasing the prominent changes in the Himalayan region, - June 2009

Holding different international research for collecting data’s and working in the field to create awareness. More than 40 representatives from global conservation organizations in 15 countries met at a workshop organized by UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) and the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) in Kathmandu, Nepal, to discuss a strategy for coordinated research on global change in mountain biosphere reserves, and especially the possibilities for implementing the ‘Global Change in Mountain Regions’ research strategy (GLOCHAMORE) at different sites around the world, particularly in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region, -Nov 2008

The World Conservation Union (IUCN)
IUCN Nepal has been celebrating Environment Day every year, to renew public commitment towards the environment conservation and also help involve social sectors towards channeling environmental values and broadening public support for the cause. Every year the Organization celebrates the environment day to spread awareness about the increasing environment problems
The IUCN in collaboration with National Trust for Nature Conservation (NTNC), WWF Nepal and International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), will conduct scoping visits, organize multi-stakeholder consultations to review the draft constitutional provisions, and finalize the constitutional provisions on environmental rights. The project aims at mainstreaming environmental rights and sustainable development principles that represent the interests of all Nepali citizens, with particular attention to those of women, poor and marginalized people into the new constitution of Nepal.
IUCN had recently hosted the 4th Asia Regional Conservation forum in Nepal from September 10-14 2007 and I had covered the news. The regional conference covered the issues of growing energy demand in the region requiring more burning of fossil fuels and increase in greenhouse gas emission in the region. The conference had submitted it drafts and agenda to the related ministry but with the orthodox bureaucracy, it was stocked in pile with the rest.

A lot of activities and things are happening in Nepal regarding raising awareness of climate change. Most of them are either focused in spending their grant money or allocated money but to a level the people have been reached and awareness is flowing in a steadily way. But on real grounds, Nepal face turmoil due to lack of proper environment policy and the orthodox system that lacks effectiveness in monitoring and evaluating these INGOs and NGOs in regard to their work and reports forwarded by them.

By Shreedeep Rayamajhi

Saturday, August 15, 2009

Climate Change Negotiating delegation in Nepal

In Nepal the Ministry of Environment, Science & Technology(MoEST) is the national coordinator which deals for and against the issues, problems and awareness of environment. Though, the ministry receives a small amount from the yearly budget but the Ministry’s work has been limited to an extent.
The Ministry has adopted high priority over the vehicle pollution and its emission issue where recently it initiated the banned of two stoke tempos’ which emitted a lot of green house gases from the valley. Apart from that the ministry has also facilitated the use of the Electric vehicles (EV) known as the Safa Tempos. More or less, there are things happing where the ministry holds rallies and awareness campaign on environment day focusing the various aspects of pollution and conservation, but is limited and questionable.
Facilitating the environment, the Ministry in coordination with the Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation has established various programs of community forest and tree plantation which to an extent have given successful results in raising awareness about environment in the locals. Amid the limited resources, orthodox system and bureaucracy, this seems more than what could be expected.
Regarding the international organization, basically there are more than a dozen of international organizations working in the field; most prominently the International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), World wide fund (WWF) and IUCN are the basic organizations that work for the cause. The big INGOs with huge grants and funds, hosts various meeting and conferences in 5 star hotels where the donation money is waste in lavish parties. Contemplating the scenario only a negligible amount of money is spent on the real cause. These International organizations highlight their concern over the growing environmental problems within the reports and presentations which are just limited within conferences and meetings. On real ground nothing checks in where Million of dollars are being wasted in the name of awareness.
In one of my experience in a discussion program on climate change and its affects, one of the participant state that, “Nepal being a small country stands no point in the international arena. Our voice stand no where and our contribution towards green house gases is also very less but reality is global warming has hit us hard where physical evidences are clearly visible. In fact raising awareness in Nepal has no point because it would not effect in any way where our voice do no count in the international arena.”
The discussion ended in a controversial way but reality is do we need awareness because till the time powerful countries like US, and UK realize that their emission has affected the atmosphere and till the time they take action against it, I think raising awareness in somewhat like treating nose when u have a tooth ache.

By Shreedeep Rayamajhi

Anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the atmosphere

Emerging for the Stone Age, humans have demanded comfort and luxury at any cost where nature has suffered the consequence. From deforestation to industrialization, the drive of success, power and excellence has pushed the human race to exploit nature pounding on anything that was available. On one hand, we constantly exploited the resources where as on the other hand we neglected to take into account the by products like gases, smoke and chemicals that were discharged in the atmosphere, which result in chemical fusion and now today it has emerged as a green house effect.

To add treachery, the development of industrialization peaked, tussling in between countries where the industry smoked out gases as a competition for development. The situation worsened when massive deforestation was carried out in the name of settlement and survival.
Weakening the natural recycling mechanism was not a question or query then but today when it has brought big consequences where everybody is bound to think of their past, presence and future.

I strongly believe the international community should concentrate its effort to stabilized or lower the concentration of the green house gases. Moreover, the developed countries should share the large portion of their effort, time and money, as today’s situation has evolved on the base of their development where the entire world is suffering the consequences. The responsibility of greenhouse effect should be distributed to all the countries in respect to their size and development as we all in one or the other way we all have contributed our efforts to push it to this state.
Human development has landed us to this scenario where our development should focus in making the wrong into right. We all have played our parts now a time has come to unit and do a joint effort to make this planet safe and beautiful.

By Shreedeep Rayamajhi

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