It lacks proper institutional, scientific and economic resources to adapt the climate changes making it more vulnerable to externalities of Climate change. Recent incidents of the glacial lake out-burst (Cho-Rolpa) in Nepal is the implications of the climate change which threats similar other glaciers and the whole Himalayan region.
Apart from the fossil fuels, deforestation and the changes in the land uses are also responsible for net increases in the carbon dioxide emissions where Nepal is moving towards adapting different strategies of Mitigation and Adaptation. Therefore, climate change seeks action at two major areas. First is the mitigation of the greenhouse gases and the second is the adaptation to the climate change.
Nepal’s Mitigation and Adaptation strategy towards Climate Change
Mitigation and adaptation are the strategic tools that deal with the cause and effect part of the global climate change. A mitigation strategy tries to eliminate the cause of global climate change whereas adaptation strategies try to minimize the adverse effects of the climate change.
-With the donor-driven Mitigation activities rather than the country driven, Nepal’s national priority is not the global environment but the local one. Moreover, the efforts have resulted in improvement of the local pollution, raising awareness, energy conservation, and technology transfer.
- Adaptation to the climate change is the area where Nepal has more stakes. Implications of the climate changes to the fragile mountain ecosystem, fresh water, and extreme weather events, agriculture, human health and others are taking its toll where the people living in the selected area are facing serious problems.
Main focus of the Conference
Focusing UFCCC and Kyoto protocol in implementing the Bali road Map: The Bali Roadmap mandates the implementation of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol, creating a secure, full, effective and sustained implementation of the UNFCCC with priority to mitigation, adaption, technology transfer and financial support. This will further help in reducing emission rate for developed countries according to the standard set under the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol.
Cooperation and Flexibility in responsibility: The developed national should take responsibility for the past degradation of the climate and further move on to reduce their emission with regards to the standards set according to future agreement. They should further help in assisting the most impacted countries with possible resources including technological transfer and take proactive measures to adapt and mitigate the climate change. The agreement should also focus on charging the high GHG emitting members according to their emission rate.
Creating an effective mechanism: The Conference should focus on creating an effective mechanism to adapt mitigation, adaption, technology transfer and financial support. It should give equal priorities to the weakest links giving them opportunity to stand up and facilitate them with effective resources. Nevertheless, financing and technology are indispensible means to achieve mitigation and adaptation where the mechanism should focus on the effective technology transfer.
Nepal’s position is very clear in context of COP 15, as climate change has hit us hard, so we believe in the implementation of Bali agreement and further move ahead with the second phase of Kyoto Protocol in adapting the most effective measures in reducing the Green house gas effect. The developed nation should further move to reduce their emission rate effectively in supporting the most impacted country in every possible way socially, financially and by transferring effective technologies.
Global warming or climate changes is a concern of everyone so the COP 15 should further move in cooperation and coalition addressing the needs and problems of the climate change in securing the future. The conference should also focus on giving substance to the voices of the smaller countries and try to understand the pragmatic grounds of developed nation. The efforts should be diverted towards a mutual point of being responsible in making united efforts of saving our earth.
Strategies of Adaptation
1. A new climate change agreement must consist of a shared vision to combat climate change and contain a clear regulatory framework that is valid for a long period of time, ideally until 2050, in order to provide enduring incentives for climate-friendly investments. Interim targets should also be established to trigger immediate action through incentives that are effective in the short-term. A system with medium and long-term targets is necessary both to give enterprises the necessary investment and planning security and to ensure that targets are met.
2. Development of innovative technologies and technology transfer. The development and application of innovative technologies and technology transfer are decisive to combat global climate change. So effective research and development need to be given adapting the best of what can be achieved.
3. The least developed countries and those facing the greatest threats should be supported in adapting to the consequences of climate change. The financial resources of the existing Adaptation Fund, which was established for this purpose, should be increased with grants from the public and the private sector. Industry can contribute to adaptation measures in particular through developing and providing appropriate technologies.
4. The international climate change agreement must aim to minimize competitive distortions on the markets through a globally uniform price for greenhouse gas emissions
5. Enhanced action on adaptation, dealing more specifically with:
Ø Objectives with respect to adapting to the impacts of climate change
Ø Supporting and undertaking the implementation of adaptation actions
Ø Addressing risk reduction, management and sharing of efforts to adapt to climate change
Ø Institutional arrangements to assist in the implementation of adaptation actions, and
Ø Monitoring and reviewing mechanisms for adaptation actions
Strategies of Mitigation
1. In order to combat climate change in a globally effective and cost-efficient way, the post-2012 agreement must include further development of the project-based on Kyoto Joint Implementation (JI) and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). These provide the opportunity to finance clean technologies and implement climate change measures in emerging and developing countries.
2. All efforts to reduce emissions must be measurable and verifiable as mentioned in the Bali Roadmap. An effective compliance system must be developed to enable transparent and verifiable comparison of the climate change efforts of the different countries. The post- Kyoto agreement must include an effective sanctioning mechanism for non-compliance with reduction targets. Improving CDM and JI
3. Development of innovative technologies and technology transfer is another aspect of Mitigation. The development and application of innovative technologies and technology transfer are decisive to combat global climate change.
4. CDM and JI projects should be used more widely for the transfer of environmental technologies as in view of the trend in the worldwide distribution of CO2 emissions, projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions would be particularly efficient and effective in developing and emerging countries.
5. Enhanced action on mitigation, dealing more specifically with:
Ø objectives with respect to adapting to the impacts of climate change
Ø supporting and undertaking the implementation of adaptation actions
Ø addressing risk reduction, management and sharing of efforts to adapt to climate change
Ø institutional arrangements to assist in the implementation of adaptation actions, and
Ø monitoring and reviewing mechanisms for adaptation actions
Many emerging countries such as China and India have considerable current account surpluses with which they are able to acquire technologies on the market. Developing countries need financial support to obtain key technologies for mitigating climate change.
Nepal being an under developed country and having less emission rate certain portrays it preeminence but the impact of the climates change and GHG in it territory has been immense where it needs to further raise questions for mitigation and adaption. The past experiences of the temperature rise in the Himalayan region have brought inevitable conditions where the drastic changes have suffered the consequence in both Visual Appearance of snow melting and accidents.
There is no argument that, economic development policy of Nepal should not compromise with the policies to mitigate GHG emissions but Nepal’s policies should try to flow in cooperation creating an effective scenario of saving the changes by effective measure of both mitigation and adaption where effort counts.
Amid the changing environment a framework should be devised targeting the adaptation and mitigation measures, which would ensure a smooth flow of both excluding conflicting outcomes. The goal for long-term cooperation should be comprehensive that should consists of sustainable development, mitigation, adaptation, financing and technology adapting the developed to the least developed countries with addressing their need and problems. In terms of mitigation, the developed countries as a whole should reduce their GHG emissions according to the standard set by the conference on mutual understanding.
Thus the Copenhagen Climate Conference should focus on full, effective and sustained implementation of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol prioritizing positive outcome, for mitigation, adaptation, technology transfer and financial support.
COP- Conference of Parties
GHG- Green House Gas
GLOF- Glacial Lake Outburst Flooding
CDM- Clean Development Mechanism
UNFCCC- United National Framework Convention on Climate Change
REDD - Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries
NAMAs- Nature of nationally appropriate mitigation actions
IPCC- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change