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Tuesday, March 8, 2011

DJ-ying in Nepal adapts the Nepali way

Amidst controversies and bad image of drugs and alcohol, DJ-ying in Nepal has always been in headlines countering and defending itself; years have passed with hundreds and thousand going in and out but it never saw a change. With DJs either getting into sex tape scandals or drugs addiction issue, DJ-ying in Nepal has seen its ups and downs, but with the changing time people have also started to accept this field of glamour and music with a new attitude. These days with the booming tourism and hotel industry, DJ-ying in Nepal is also grooming its way getting popular in Nepalese society where more or less new generations are getting interested.

It may sound absurd but previously when a DJ used to be considered as someone with tattoos, attitude and a drugs abuser but these days a DJ is respected as a professional where he stand for his professionalism and creativity.

Now getting down to the modern definition, DJ is acronym for Disk Jockey (DJ) who mixes, scratches and makes creative sounds from the disk but to its adaptation DJ-ying has more of its own dynamics where there are different aspects related to it. A DJ in a club is like a manager who controls and manages the club. It is his duty to manage the systems and to make the people enjoy in groove. Likewise, coming from that definition, DJ-ying in Nepal has been preexisting here from past one decade. With a very orthodox and limited thinking, this field has prolonged with a narrow definition and limited image and today it has out casted the prejudices with a slap of proving itself as a creative and professional field promising a prominent career like any other.

Moving its way from the limited discotheques to the modern definition of celebration, today DJ-ying has been a part of daily lifestyle in Nepal. What clubs, what marriages and what corporate occasions everywhere DJs are seen scratching and mixing sounds making people move around their beats. Moreover, it seems that the people of 21st century are more happier and want to celebrate their occasions in a more extravagant and musical way.

Looking at it from a different angle it also has evolved as a career for many aspiring young artists who believe in doing something in this field. Though few go through rigorous training and studies but most learn it in a sequential apprentice way of learning by doing method. Each individual is trained on one on one basis by their preexisting professional. The training are easily available at a cost of NRS 12,000 to 20,000 (USD 250 approximately) depending upon the level and skills of the candidates interest. The overall equipment of the DJ-ying costs from NRS 100,000 to NRS 300,000 which are easily available in the market.

DJ Saakar a leading DJ, who has worked in this field for more than 8 years says, “It’s a creative and entrainment field where a DJ is a king of celebration. It’s up to him to make the event happening and enjoyable. He should be extravagant in every possible way to make the crowd feel and believe to live their life in a more exhilarating way. DJ-ying is not just of being cool and showing off attitude, in-fact it’s about concentration and hard work, where a dedicated DJ keeps on practicing his skills and researching about the new developments in the music industry and equipments. It may look easy from outside but it’s very hard. On contrary if you compare it with any other professions, DJ-ying is a tough job as you have to constantly prove yourself in your family and society which has an orthodox and monotonous thinking about you and your career, so it’s a hell of a tough job which is not easy.”

Regarding clubbing, he said, “The scope of clubbing and DJ-ying is growing with peoples changing lifestyle. If we could just address their needs, then we can surely see it as a good revenue generation field . But the authorities are too limited and it creates problems at times as we don’t have proper rule and regulation here. They just bring the security issue in front and things go lame. Reality is we are a small country where we are doing an effort to develop. We have so many problems and further the authorities make it difficult to even work here. The way should have been the opposite and they should facilitate us, this field has tremendous potential, we can do so much but in reality it works the way around. I want to do something for this field and my major hindrance is not just the orthodox thinking but lame attitude of authorities towards this field. I have thought of opening an association which would help monitor and maintain the standards of club DJs and further more I’m also planning to go to schools and colleges with DJ-ying as extra curriculum activity. We are further working in talking with the other stake holders, we need to unite from all sides and work together.”

“These days it’s very easy to learn and to find the equipment, people of this generation are very fortunate as everything is available but during our days, we had to import the equipments and most importantly good trainers were also scarce. A lot of situations and conditions were there and you had to face the negative image of this field but now things have changed, which is really important,” added he.

Conditioning its own prospect, these days a lot of DJ-ying competitions are happening where the numbers of participants are also overwhelming. These DJ-ying competitions number are not a question but the quality of human resources that coming out are and getting in lime light most of theses competition and their winners certainly get themselves into controversies, which has further drained the image.
What’s the use when there are no standards and quality is a question that I made to one of the organizer of a DJ-ying competition – “Kings of DJ- March 05, 2011” Little Star Shrestha said, “Basically it’s all about giving people a plat form. We have given them a means to show their talents, now it’s upon them to work their way. We can’t be there all the time and take care of them, it’s upon them to work it and make this profession clean and practical. We are just here to show them the path the rest is in their own hands.”

Nepal being a small country has limited opportunity of investment, the big giants’ like china and India further makes it difficult for its industrial development where there are very limited opportunities which certainly affects its development. But significantly Nepal’s tourism industry holds a major part in its GDP which is phenomenal. These days a lot of Nepal’s DJs have also been seen working abroad in foreign countries where they are creating their own name and fame, it is just a trend but significantly it’s making an impact.

Ravi Sharma a Social Scientist said, “Any creative field should not be limited within the idea of ignorance. DJ-ying was considered as a stigma of the western world but it was mostly due to the shadows of drugs and alcohol but its changing and people have started to accept it in a normally way. Apart from that DJ-ying is part of music which cannot be defined and like said earlier creativity has no limitation. Till the time it soothes ears, it’s feasible and it goes well. Its normal tendency for people to migrate where there are better opportunities. If there is a possibility of making this field better and has a potential possibility the government and the concerned department should do a research about it.”

Sharing his experience Sharma added, “Even I have danced to the beats of a DJ in a recent wedding where it was phenomenal. The way they mix the rhythms and melodies are simply awesome. I enjoyed every bit of it and I still have a hangover. I would love to dance to the tunes again.”

Breaking the league, creative fields like this has certainly created a new scope and horizon for such fields where alternately it has also broken the orthodox thinking of limiting secured professions as Doctors, Scientist, Managers and Engineers as a prominent career choice. As comparing it to any other professional an average monthly income of a good professional DJ is ranged from NRS 30,000 to 60,000(USD 450 to 850) which is lucrative.

DJ Jazzy Joe a reputed Indian DJ on tour of Nepal said, “DJ-ying is all about expressing yourself in the form of music, the only way a DJ can be called good is the way he can entertain the crowd. It’s an art form that’s very normal like any other field. This field also has its pros and cons, but due to the stigma of Drugs and alcohol, its image is getting affected where people tend to see DJ’s with a different perspective but now times are changing. DJs are also getting recognized where society is accepting them for what they do.”

“DJ-ying is a field related to music, and music is positive, it’s the field of making others happy and spreading joy. If you have an attitude and you are stiff then you cannot perform well, it’s all about being yourself and making people feel the happiness, so a DJ needs to be positive and happy all the time,” added he.

Talking about Standardization he said, “It’s a must in this field but standardization should not affect the interest of the young aspiring artists, it should be entailed in a proper way where quality must be its priority not quantity. This career choice certainly comes with fun but loads of options, like said it’s upon the rider to make sure the journey goes well.”

Controversies raging of DJs having bad images to their sex tapes, DJs of Nepal have not been able to meet up to the standards though Nepalese have accepted them but with the controversies coming up at times it seems they have to work on their moral and ethics. The question here is not about who does what or what can be done to stop it , the question here is about morale and ethic whether our society is able to accept it or not. May be it’s a personal or professional question but how can a single person’s act be responsible for staining the image of the entire field? This question certainly affects this field and further dilutes the prospect of the coming up aspiring artist who look up to their elders. Now it’s upon the DJs to make themselves credible and responsibly, so that the coming generation and their field could look up to them.

May be it’s a standardization issue may be it’s not but it certainly holds key to the future prospect of this field.

By Shreedeep Rayamajhi

Thursday, March 3, 2011

Shivaratri- The Weed Day celebrated here in Nepal

Kathmandu March 02: The festival of Shivaratri was celebrated with great enthusiasm and zeal among the devotees, followers, yogis, and sadhus here at Pashupatinath Temple Kathmandu Nepal. Thousands of Hindu pilgrims from all over the world came to this temple just to pay their homage to lord Shiva where lines were seen from a day before. Traffic around Pashupatinath area was completely halted due to the devotee’s number.

Looking at the popularity of the Temple, the Pashupati Area Development Trust (PADT) had made arrangements of tickets for directly entering the temple without any hassle by
paying NRS 1000 which was proven to be very fruitful especially for old aged people and Hindu tourists.

According to beliefs, it is said that devotees who mediate and voice the name of lord Shiva on this day would be freed from all sins. Most of the devotees were seen fasting all day where
they visited the near Shiva temple to break their fast. It is also believed that this is the night when Lord Shiva performed his Tandava Nritya that is

the source of creation, preservation and dissolution.
Another excitement that attracted youngsters and teenagers was on this particular day it is allowed to smoke hashish or Marijuana for gurus and yogis, which is considered as one of the prized possession of lord Shiva. With this trend, Pashupatinath area also attracts thousands of teenagers where these illicit drugs are sold and bought openly on this day.

Ramesh Shrestha, a teenager at Pashupatinath area said, “Lord Shiva loves marijuana that’s one of his favorites, so we all come here to celebrate this for him. We are his devotees and we are bound to follow him; we want to make him happy.”

Pashupatinath area was not only seen smoked and buzzed with intoxication but hundreds of medical camps and ambulances were also seen treating and catering thousands of people for their hallucination and injuries.

Ravi Sharma, a social scientist said, “It’s a very harsh aspect of our culture where things are manipulated accordingly. Certainly it’s happening due to lack of monitoring and surveillances. The uses of these illicit drugs are just for the yogis and sadhus but irrelevantly they are sold to teenagers and it’s open for all. It has evolved as a negative trend in our society where people are grasping it into the culture which is highly questionable. Necessary steps need to be taken by authorities before it’s too late.”

Looking at the growing trend of using illicit drugs, this year a high number of police personnel were seen in and around the Pashupatinath abode. According to sources almost 4000 security personnel wore deployed in plain and formal clothes to curb the trade and use.

The Ex-Monarch Gyanendra Shah and his consort Komal Shah were also seen in the Temple where after paying their homage, they headed towards Guheshwori Temple. Likewise, celebrating the enthusiasm an Indian dance group compromising various dancers including Santnu Chakraborty a renowned bharatnatyam dancer performed and the enigmatic and exaggerating Shiva Tandav at the abode.

For watching the full procession, you can see it through this given link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5RXb6uaKKQE

By Shreedeep Rayamajhi

Wednesday, March 2, 2011

Why did biography.org de-listed buddha from Indian Great Leaders

It was really sad to see that Biography.org in its list of biography of Indian Great Leaders had listed Buddha, Siddhartha Gautam being an Indian. The whole Biography of Buddha was conscripted making him an Indian leader with supremacy and bigger words.
Most of the references were taken from the local  websites without international research. I was so surprised to see that such a reputed organization making such mistake in view of limited research and communication. It was clearly  written that Buddha was born in India. To my surprise there has been no proof found regarding the boundaries of  the so called Bhart Barsha or there has not been any technical or geographical studies done. In-fact Nepal was create 200 years ago but it existed in the form of many states scattered and spread. There are documentation of Yalabar the first king of Kirats being acknoweldge in the Mabharata as the king who had came to fight from the kingdom of HIMKHANDA 

There are still proofs that sikkim and other state of India which were part of the great Nepal period during the  British India Company are today in India but there is no technical paper of research that proves buddha was born in India.

The truth about where buddha was born can be answered only by him, as there was no documentation in terms of geography. It has been identified and certified that the place where Buddha was born is currently in Nepal by the UNESCO in its website and excavation are still happening in and around the area.

It is clearly said and documented that Asoka the Great king left his country in  search of Buddha and came to Nepal and erected the Asoka pillar.         

Now getting back to the topic, I wrote back to biography.org with the links of UNESCO  reference stating why they listed   Gautam Buddha was born in India. Within a couple of days they changed the title and remove buddha from the list of   Indian Great Leaders


Tuesday, March 1, 2011

Don't Say I hate Politics, Say I hate Politician( The SPARK of CHANGE )

Whether it’s Nepali Congress or UML or the Maoist party, there is not a single politician or leader who could be respected or worth getting the respect. All of them, they are so limited and bounded by their selfish motives and games that they forget they are the servants of public. More or less, they indulge themselves to luxury of cars and securities with the hard earned money of tax payers and citizens disgracing their oath of serving public.

In fact reality is Politician is such a respectable image where we confine our believes and aspirations, we trusts the leaders to play a crucial role in overall development of the country but till date we have just see them engaging themselves in corruption, power politics, commission rackets, favoritism, social discrimination, lobbing selfish motives, accumulating people money in foreign banks etc .

I bet there is no politician who would be respected from heart by any one. They disgrace the societal values of socialism where they take the oath of serving the nation but alternately support their individual party in strengthening their forces and power.
The problem here is not with the leaders, the problem here is with us the normal people, we select these leaders and when they get to power, they play and manipulate us in their desired ways but we keep our mouths shut. We just move to their rhythm where they treat us like nobody.

I say and believe every Nepali has the bloody right to ask each of these leaders about what they did and what they are planning to do coz it’s our Nation and we are the tax payers. As we pay taxes in everything from buying a chocolate to sewage to cold drinks, everything but still we are least bothered group. Moreover, the hard earned money completely goes in vain paying hefty salaries and comforting their luxury. It’s our responsibility to remind them of their mistakes where we lack.
We ignore e the fact that we pay taxes and it’s our RESPONSIBILTY to see what is happening and to validate their actions but we don’t have time. Likewise, we blame everything upon them which is completely erratic and irresponsible, as they are selected by us. We do protests; do blockades, Chaka Jam, Bandhas etc on useless things but regarding our politicians and their acts we keep silence making it limited within the voices of an unknown tables and chairs.

The fascinating part is we say politics is a dirty game, but it’s our garbage. Just by saying it’s bad or disgracing it, things won’t change. We have two choices either we keep our mouth shut and let the things that’s happening go on or do something about it in any way possible. It’s upon our efforts and we need to dig our hands into the garbage and clean it, because it our garbage and nobody else is coming to clean it we have to do it by ourselves.

We the young blood the so called generation-X needs a wake up call and say that yes we are determined not just to blame but to take charge. We have to take responsibilities in every possible way of being a good citizen and work our way in the system. It might take days or years, but change is supposed to happen and it will happen no matter what. We have the skills and courage and let’s unite to bring change.

This is not just a call for me, you or anyone, it’s a call for every Nepali who feels pride to say he or she is Nepali and if you care about it spread the awareness and save our nation. Let’s take the promise to bring change not just by words but by social awareness and by social change where our small effort counts and each individual matter to say that he or she is a part of this society and we can play a crucial role for the development of our country. Let’s make Nepal a better Nepal for the coming generation to be proud of where we can hold our heads high to say we brought the change.

Monday, February 28, 2011

Brain Drain

The word Brain drain, defines itself to showcase its meaning where it literally means migration of qualitative human resource to foreign nation abandoning their own. Moreover, contemplating its existence in a more negative way, it institutes our society and mentality within the limited concept. Depending on time, situation and resources available, the concept of brain drain can be dissected in different ways. I believe brain drain is an inevitable condition of human nature that is manifested strongly by human psychology. As it is said, “Humans with their ambitious nature have always been in search of the best. Their migration and their learning have always been subjected to change in the quest for betterment where they have migrated for many reasons which depend upon their feasibility and accessibility.”

Likewise, they have developed this technique from their survival age where it’s natural and instinctive to move to a feasible place where there is more comfort, resources and flexibility but looking at the modern trend of our country brain drain seems very arguable, but if we look at it as a trend of migration to the third country then it really takes our attention and should further be investigated for the prime causes. Looking at it from another perspective it may seem more palpable to define it within the scarcity, limited opportunity and possibilities but not as a trend to follow others.

For eg. Let’s look at the current trend, our education system especially in third world country, education is more theoretical and very orthodox and it has its layers where it lacks standardization and comparatively competition rules in for the people with high power and money. The best possibility is to go outside and to gain knowledge where your capacity and capability will both grow, so why not?

Brain drain in such scenario is admissible because you don’t have the resources and facilitates to grow. Here the question of intention arises, if for the growth and development the person can go but if the person goes after the trend of just going abroad then it’s wrong. I believe brain drain is not a problem but a situation that persist due to lack of the government miss management as when people are qualified and when they have no option except to migrate than its very instinctive to look for better opportunity. May be there might be a version to think at it from the large number of qualitative human resource that migrates abroad but putting this question to yourself what will you do if there is a similar condition, then you will have the answer as ground reality is always bitter.

Tuesday, July 20, 2010

Be-aware of who you add in Facebook

Facebook has certainly evolved as a new revolution in 21st century. What teenagers? or what adults? Everybody loves to be on Facebook. From organization’s details to games to wide varieties of applications, Facebook has everything creating a new addiction and opportunity of online social marketing. With easy accessibility and flexibility, Facebook certainly proves to be an effective medium of socializing and networking but on contrary with the open information and easy access, it tends to be very rigid for private and personal life. Adapting the different countries, the growing number seems very lucrative and exciting but it’s proving to be vulnerable to teenagers and new users who are unknowingly being manipulated and exploited. One thing that a user must understand is he/she should always control the privacy setting and be precise about the information that is being displayed or given out. As people displaying wrong or unwanted information can result in being manipulated and land up in inevitable situation.
Perhaps, it should also be considered that the company has made the platform user friendly for its effectiveness and has stored strong features in safeguarding the privacy issue but unknowingly people are getting manipulated and exploited due to their personal negligence which needs to be understood, studies and researched.

Likewise, for a new user it’s very hard to understand the setting where they neglected the importance of privacy setting and land themselves in trouble. More or less, the popularity of the Facebook has not only created a trend but has established itself as a culture. Facebook certainly proves to be an effective medium to express themselves in their desired way highlighting their emotions, feelings and expression in the most profound way.

Merits and demerits of Facebook

  • An easy search to find new and old friends
  • Greater security and privacy setting for customers
  • Helps in easy communication, sharing and making new friends
  • Easy platform for getting to know people in a easy way
  • Helps to customize and express users in a proactive way
  • Open and easy accessible if privacy setting is not customized
  • Overcrowding and very irritating
  • Changes of photos and profile being misuse and misinterpreted
  • Weakening long distance relationship
  • Promotes wide-range of procrastination
  • Addiction
  • Possibility of stalking is very high
  • Acquaintances be labeled as friends
  • High possibility of sexual, physical and mental exploitation and abuse
Like such, with this trend, a new group of people have emerged who have been manipulating the means of online networking in their desired way. These groups specifically target new users who are very ignorant and flexible to their privacy setting.

A young girl was exploited mentally in the same view. Recently she had joined Facebook, with all the glory, fame and most importantly her friend suggested her. She opened the account and had no clue about the privacy setting and the threats of Facebook. At first she uploaded all her pictures in her account and was adding and enjoying Facebook. Later one of her friends informed her about her a different account which had all her pictures. Someone had opened an account with a different name using all her pictures. “I could not believe it, I literally got scared out of it because we live in society and if something wrong happens or if the profile user uses it in a wrong ways, fingers will be pointed at me, and that’s what I don’t want,” said she.

“I have already reported Facebook administration about it and I’m waiting for their answer, I just hope they deleted that account” added she. Looking at the current scenario different countries like Syria, Iran, China, United Arab Emirates, Pakistan etc have banned the use of Facebook in their territory. The questions that these countries are putting forward are not just about the safety and exploitation but are raising the questions about morale and religious values of their community.

Similarly, in another incident, a male Nepali citizen living in Germany made friends with a Nepali Girl on Facebook. With her attractive profile and friendly nature they got close. At first she was very attractive and portrayed a vulnerable and innocent image. With time and days their relationship grew intimate and all this happened online on Facebook and MSN messenger. Every day they would talk for hours and then she started to show her true colors. Showing her poor financial condition she asked for financial support and the man believing her send her NRS 30,000 (USD 400) in two cash installments through the western union money transfer. Day after day she started demanding stuffs and things. Then looking at her condition the man again send her a laptop worth NRS 51,000 (USD 700), after getting hold of the laptop she not satisfied and she demanded an Apple Note Book, and luckily she returned the laptop in view of getting the desired one. Till now the man had no idea that she was a con and was after his money. After having an online relationship for 9 months then she hit the point where she demanded a scooter worth NRS 0.15 million (USD 2000). When the guy refused to pay the money for her scooter, she abandoned him.

“I was shocked to see such a thing, and I had no idea that people would do anything like this for money. I always believed in her and loved her unconditionally but she was a fraud. It doesn’t matter that much that I lost the money but the accusation part hurts me more than anything and I will never forgive her for that,” said the victim.

Just like that people all over the world have been financially, sexually and mentally been abused and exploited in desired ways due to their lack of ignorance. During the research we came to know that the girl also demanded money with other people who were there in her friends list. In the following the girls has used different names like Catchrains, Smily anne, Kali Maicha etc. From the past few months she has been changing her profile name and recently she deleted her profile from Facebook.

So the easy accessibility of opening and closing account with desired information is a huge threat and risk for people where it may seem simple but its consequence can be bitter.

Baburam Aryal, a Cyber law expert said, “Facebook itself is a platform of freedom of expression where its legality is arguable. Users should be aware of their rights and should be able to contain themselves with in the limitation and privacy setting. Cyber law permits the use of Facebook as a strong medium of freedom expression where people have the rights to express themselves in their desired way. Until and unless the act is used for deceiving or knowingly hampering others its defined legal.” “In both cases, the main thing that matters is whether both the parties had a mutual agreement or not, if any of the party had deceived the other party in framing by using fake name or identity then the question of legality arises and then it comes under tradition or cyber fraud which can be dissected accordingly. But if the exchange was done in mutual basis knowing the reality of both partners without faking any identity then it’s completely legal and nothing can be done.” Regarding the restriction of Facebook, Aryal added, “Facebook cannot be questioned or restricted in any way as it defines the legal frame work of freedom of expression, if there are conditions that highlights or challenges public interest only then it can be reviewed. Facebook itself defines its legality where it’s clearly written in law that the use and motive of the user can be questioned but not the platform. In fact the country can further collaborate with Facebook in securing the privacy for further creating better mechanism.”

In its recent edition, the guardian.co.uk quoted that “Social network sites risk infantilising the mid-21st century mind, leaving it characterised by short attention spans, sensationalism, inability to empathise and a shaky sense of identity, according to a leading neuroscientist.”

Facebook certainly has its dimensions and features. The most important thing for a user is to educated and understand the relative importance of being aware and trying to be safe. If the user himself is not aware of the fact of his existence and threats then nobody or no policy can save or help him. However, online frauds and exploitation are inevitable situation which cannot be stopped but in an underdeveloped country like ours where technology has been given the speed without any limitation and restriction, people are bound to suffer the consequences because of its mishandling where the government should give an eye. The question here is not about the manipulation but the question here is about what can be done and how it can be stopped where the government and the related department should play their role in raising awareness about the safe guarding the rights of the users and creating better mechanism and policies to curb the problems.

Shreedeep Rayamajhi

Wednesday, June 2, 2010

A revolution for eyes sight and cataract patients

The Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology(TIO) has been proven to be a boon for the people of Nepal and South Asia. Everyday hundreds of people flock to this pristine institution to treat different malfunctioning and diseases related to eyes. On averagely more than 50 cataract patients are operated and are given new hope of vision and better life. The institute is pioneering itself as a research facility training international ophthalmologists in the revolutionary Small Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS) technique.
Establish in the year 1994, the Ophthalmology is spread in 135,000 square feet in Gaushala, Kathmandu. TIO is a nonprofit, community based, non-government organization following the vision and mission of the Nepal Eye Program. With an aim to act as a model for treatment research and training center, it has proven to be an ideal model for Nepal. The Tilganga intraocular lens laboratory has produced around three million lenses where the cost of intraocular lens produced brought a revolution in the world of vision. The cost of the lens which use to be around USD 100, significantly reduced to just USD 3.5 giving hope to many poor cataract patients worldwide and specially in Asia. The lens produced here are rated top most quality after the US brand which certainly highlights its prospects.
As part of its regular event TIO has been conducting more than15 free health camps yearly across the country with more than 9,000 surgeries . It is estimated that on average 100 Cataract surgeries are performed each day during the health camps.
One of the major attraction is Dr Sanduk Ruit Medical Director of the institution. Dr Ruit, has received the famous Ramon Magsaysay Award in 2006 for introducing cheap sutureless technique to perform cataract surgery and manufacturing inexpensive high-quality intraocular lens.
He is an aspiring personality developing and mastering the SICS technique giving dreams and hopes to people to see and feel the world with a new perspective.
By Shreedeep Rayamajhi

Friday, January 15, 2010

IPv6 and its Future prospect for developing countries

Moving on with globalization and adapting the needs of standardization, internet has been adaptive and proactive in its more dynamic form. Transcending from the less resourceful application to the multi dimensional prospect of utilization and effectiveness, internet has been more expanding and progressing adapting the technology in most profound way. Amidst the buzz of the formalization of Internet Protocol Version (IPv6) around the globe by 2012, IPv6 has been an important issue of concern. More or less with the future prospect of the IPv6, effective brain storming sessions needs to be incorporated for facilitating the awareness and its deployment. The current need is the demand of knowledge focusing on different aspect of capacity building and creating awareness among the vast majority of professional of developing countries giving them new ideas of business prospect, awareness, infrastructure building, standardization etc. The growing internet business and its high scale popularity of the e-business have certainly jeopardized the IP management system out casting the old IPv4 system. In developing countries IPv6 is a relatively new issue where resource sharing and technical aspect of its feasibility is lacked at both professional as well as policy level. Thus, effective training and awareness is needed for relevant topics of IPv6, contemplating its current scenario and adaptation. According to Wiki, “Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the fourth revision in the development of the Internet Protocol (IP) and it is the first version of the protocol to be widely deployed. Together with IPv6, it is at the core of standards-based internetworking methods of the Internet. IPv4 is still by far the most widely deployed Internet Layer protocol, as IPv6 is still in its infancy of deployment.” IPv4 is described in IETF publication RFC 791 (September 1981), replacing an earlier definition (RFC 760, January 1980). The United States Department of Defense also standardized it as MIL-STD-1777. IPv4 is a connection-less protocol to be used on packet-switched Link Layer networks (e.g., Ethernet). It operates on a best effort delivery model, in that it does not guarantee delivery, nor does it assure proper sequencing, or avoid duplicate delivery. These aspects, including data integrity, are addressed by an upper layer transport protocol (e.g., Transmission Control Protocol). IPv4 provides only header integrity achieved with a checksum. Looking at the global scenario today most of the IT industries are using IPv4 system and have not seen much interest toward the new IPv6 system. To resolve the exhaustion of IP addresses, extending its address space is a straightforward solution where IPv6, the next generation of IP provides a huge number of IP addresses and makes NAT obsolete allowing the Internet to recover its original principles. In fact, it is expected that the entire address space of IPv4 will be exhausted around 2012 replacing the old with the dynamics of IPv6, resulting in better operation and management skills. First we need to understand the real technical aspect of IPv6, According to IPv6.org, “IPv6 is short for "Internet Protocol Version 6". IPv6 is the "next generation" protocol designed by the IETF to replace the current version Internet Protocol, IP Version 4 (IPv4"). Most of today's internet uses IPv4, which is now nearly twenty years old. IPv4 has been remarkably resilient in spite of its age, but it is beginning to have problems. Most importantly, there is a growing shortage of IPv4 addresses, which are needed by all new machines added to the Internet. IPv6 fixes a number of problems in IPv4, such as the limited number of available IPv4 addresses. It also adds many improvements to IPv4 in areas such as routing and network auto configuration. IPv6 is expected to gradually replace IPv4, with the two coexisting for a number of years during a transition period.” The current deployment status of IPv6 and its technical status need to be overcome by effective knowledge sharing. With the massive deployment of Internet-related resources worldwide and the integration of IP-enabled consumer devices connected directly to the network, the issue of the depletion of IPv4 addresses is becoming pertinent. Indeed, there is wide recognition of the need for better awareness of the availability of IPv4 addresses and the deployment of IPv6. The use of Network Address Translation (NAT) as a strategy for reducing the use of public IPv4 addresses, several experts forecast depletion in the next few years. In addition to other features, IPv6 with its 128 bit address space is aimed at addressing the current shortage of public IPv4 addresses. However, the transition from IPv4 to IPv6 is going at a rather slow rate, with both versions being used in parallel. Many analyst and researchers attribute that market forces and other economic considerations have hugely influenced the condition where the IPv6 and its issue have been in a situation of unknown and vulnerable especially for developing countries. If proper resource sharing and awareness is not acquainted with the effective knowledge and technological transfer then IPv6 can result in a disaster.

By Shreedeep Rayamajhi

Sunday, December 6, 2009

A Synopsis of Cyber Warfare & Terrorism

1. Introduction
As technology is driving internet, Cyber space is expanding where virtually everything is possible from 3D animation to remote /open networking to e-banking to entertainment. With the advent of better technologies and systems, life has been a comfort to see and communicate in doing activities at both personal and professional level from one part of the world to the other. This open access and flexibility of the Internet has not only slaved people in enjoying the benefits of technologies but on the other hand the same accessibility is also threatening the system with inevitable threats like virus, worms, hacking, identity theft, copy rights issues and everlasting frauds and scams are tolling up. The dynamics of the open cyber space has not only connected the world in terms of speed, and accessibility but on contrary has also facilitated the wrong doers in effectively channelizing their knowledge to achieve their selfish motive by manipulating the global network in desired way.
However, the interconnection of network that started from a room, today hold the power to connect the world where one’s existence is broaden within the virtual identity of seeing and feeling oneself in the 3D animation world of second life which is simply mind boggling. Amazing yet exciting, everything is virtually possible in its dimensions which plays with in the matrix of specific codes.
The expansion of cyber space not only gives space to greater efficacy of sharing and better business opportunity but perversely it has lured different externalities which are creating nuisance proving threat to security online. Perhaps, one might feel secure about one’s status but in cyber space nothing is impossible. It is just the possibilities that are suppressed by the knowledge and experience of codes and skills where feeling secured is a theoretical definition that bites reality. Today, Cyber space is not just a platform of information access, it has adapted to a proactive version where different micro and macro elements, ranging from commercialization to technology to terrorism harbor their ultimate dimension of opportunities and possibilities.
Like such Cyber Warfare & Cyber Terrorism are some of the burning issues which threats the cyberspace and its operations.
2. Background
Cyber warfare and terrorism is the modern transcended version of insecurities of abuse and exploitation within the limitation of terrorizing adapting the modern form of technology and advancement. Reality is Cyber Warfare is a form of attack on a system from various ways making it convey a message or any form of message. Cyber Terrorism is a form of fear and dread utilizing the means of Internet to attack or hack computer systems of significance for acquiring top secret data or making it obsolete. Likewise, within the flexibility and accessibility of open network, terrorist groups are increasingly adapting the power of modern communications technology for planning, recruiting, propaganda purposes, enhancing communications, command and control, fund raising and funds transfer, information gathering, and the same. The true threat of cyber terrorism and warfare is not only aspiring in cyber space for its illegal act of taking control but alternatively is exploiting and manipulating people’s psychology using the elements of discrimination, racialism, terror etc , which further is dividing people and creating differences. Some of the examples of cyber terrorism and warfare are mentioned below:

Estonia Cyber Attack 2007/2008
Cyber attacks on Estonia (also known as the Estonian Cyber war) refers to a series of cyber attacks that began April 27, 2007 and swamped websites of Estonian organizations, including Estonian parliament, banks, ministries, newspapers and broadcasters, amid the country's row with Russia about the relocation of the Bronze Soldier of Tallinn, an elaborate Soviet-era grave marker, as well as war graves in Tallinn. Most of the attacks that had any influence on the general public were distributed denial of service type attacks ranging from single individuals using various low-tech methods like ping floods to expensive rentals of botnets usually used for spam distribution. Spamming of bigger news portals commentaries and defacements including that of the Estonian Reform Party website also occurred.
Some observers reckoned that the onslaught on Estonia was of a sophistication not seen before. The case is studied intensively by many countries and military planners as, at the time it occurred, it may have been the second-largest instance of state-sponsored cyber warfare, following Titan Rain. Estonian Foreign Minister Urmas Paet accused the Kremlin of direct involvement in the cyber attacks. On September 6, 2007 Estonia's defense minister admitted he had no evidence linking cyber attacks to Russian authorities. "Of course, at the moment, I cannot state for certain that the cyber attacks were managed by the Kremlin, or other Russian government agencies," Jaak Aaviksoo said in interview on Estonian's Kanal 2 TV channel. Aaviksoo compared the cyber attacks with the blockade of Estonia's Embassy in Moscow. "Again, it is not possible to say without doubt that orders (for the blockade) came from the Kremlin, or that, indeed, a wish was expressed for such a thing there," said Aaviksoo. Russia called accusations of its involvement "unfounded," and neither NATO nor European Commission experts were able to find any proof of official Russian government participation. As of January 2008, one ethnic-Russian Estonian national has been charged and convicted.
During a panel discussion on cyber warfare, Sergei Markov of the Russian State Duma has stated his unnamed aide was responsible in orchestrating the cyber attacks. Markov alleged the aide acted on his own while residing in an unrecognized republic of former Soviet Union, possibly Transnistria. On March 10, 2009 Konstantin Goloskokov, a "commissar" of Kremlin-backed youth group Nashi has claimed responsibility for the attack.
(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2007_cyberattacks_on_Estonia)
Twitter Attack 2009
As Twitter struggled to return to normal Wednesday evening, a trickle of details suggested that the outage that left 30 million users unable to use the micro-blogging service for several hours - at least in part - may have been the result of a spam campaign that targeted a single user who vocally supports the Republic of Georgia.
According to Bill Woodcock, research director at the non-profit Packet Clearing House, the torrent of traffic that brought the site to its knees wasn't the result of a traditional DDoS, or distributed denial of service attack, but rather people who clicked on a link in spam messages that referenced a well-known blogger called Cyxymu.
(Source: http://www.theregister.co.uk/2009/08/07/twitter_attack_theory/)
South Korean Attacks
South Korea is experiencing a third wave of suspected cyber-attacks - co-ordinate attempts to paralyze a number of major websites. One of the country's biggest banks, a leading national newspaper and the South Korean spy agency appear to have been targeted. Some reports suggest the attacks might be the work of North Korea. South Korea and the US reported similar attacks earlier in the week, with the White House and the Pentagon targeted. The South Korean government, and the country's internet service providers, are still trying to fight off what appears to be a deliberate attempt to shut down major websites that began earlier this week. In what is known as a "denial of service" attack, thousands of virus-infected computers are hijacked and simultaneously directed to a particular site, overwhelming it with the sheer volume of traffic.
(Source: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/8142282.stm)

3. Cyber Warfare

Technically speaking, Cyber Warfare refers to any considerable act using computers and engaging in warfare activities by any means in targeting or causing any harm to the websites or groups in cyberspace with a selfish motive is called Cyber Warfare. This includes vandalizing websites, circulating false information, misguiding and rejection of service attacks, creating false accusation and propagandas, and gathering classified data in the cyber space.
Cyber warfare is overcoming the expectation of researchers and security analysts in every possible way posing a high level threat to any country. With high strategic target results and precision, its use should not be underestimated as it is highly flexible and hard to detect. The low cost allows training or hiring a team capable of doing more damage than battle fields. Moreover, the digitizations of conventional warfare technologies as well as the development of new Artificial Intelligence weapons with more complex devices jeopardize the security as well as opens risk of cyber warfare in expanding and strategizing the cyber attackers to strategize their plans within the loop holes.
Previously, when strategic battle operations were performed manually on papers and then in action have further taken a step ahead where the new development of weaponry have substituted the older version with effective technological advancement of Global Positioning Satellite(GPS) and Smart computers. The operation which were once carried out by human operators with average success rate of 70% have exceeded to 99.9% with unmanned Artificial Intelligence and smart computers. The precision rate not only shows the success of artificial intelligence but reluctantly shows the great risk of control and management of such system.
The cyber space not only gives space for entertainment but on contrary shares the same with highly sophisticated weapons of mass destruction which are connected to each other by cyber space and relative technologies. So with just a loop hole, massive cyber attacks can take form of a cyber warfare where time ticks with no option except to wait for consequences.
Reality is we are gaining power in developing weapons of smart technology which are much more faster, efficient and precise but we fail to address the question at what cost or risk. We can calculate the damage that these weapons can result in but what if the table turns the way round and the same system which were develop to fight against terror goes in control of such people. This is an important question which hunts every security analyst and is a curial issue regarding cyber security.
Realizing, the technological advancement, cyber space has been the most happening business opportunity for any field from economy to finance to industries. Especially in developing countries where the booming of internet is being grasped with higher effectiveness, posses a high threat to the people of that region. As technological advancement are being adapted with greater effectiveness, the attacker (hackers) are also gaining technological advancement to the level where they are much faster, better and precise than any security system. The basic problem that has been encountered in most of the developing countries is acceptance of technology seems very easy but maintaining its substance is a question. The problem arises when the system gets manipulated by attackers in desired way due to lack of proper infrastructure. And in most cases the country lacks to address the issue of cyber policies and proper mechanism where problems like cyber exploitation, child abuse and pornography, Hacking and Virus and scam takes its toll. When not addressed with effective measures, it just results like giving a knife to a kid. The possibilities that can be imagined are endless. So the effectiveness of internet takes the form of threat where at times these vacuums of system loop holes can take the form of cyber attacks and the consequences can be irreversible and most damaging.
For example, hacking the main control system of a dam and opening the gates of a dam is a technological possible to the modern society where the technologies threats the society. The consequence can be carnage of thousands of innocent people. Similarly, releasing weapons of mass destruction may have catastrophic results.
Likewise, Two years ago, a political dispute between Russia and Estonia escalated when the small Baltic country came under a sustained denial-of-service attack which disabled the country's banking industry and its utilities like the electricity network.
This was repeated last year, when Georgia's web infrastructure was brought down on its knees during its conflict with Russia.
(Source: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/davos/7862549.stm)
Thus, Cyber warfare is a relatively a concern topic for all from developed to developing countries who are exploring the depth of advance weaponry and other facilities of cyber space. It needs to be well thought within the pros and cons which need to be restricted within the accessibility of its use and operation.

3.a Protection against Cyber Warfare

The main protection against cyber warfare is getting your prepared and secured with the necessary software and firewall that are available. Protection against cyber warfare in real sense means, being aware about the issues and happenings of cyber space. Every security measure that is performed by a non-human device in the digital world is a member of this group. From the emails that are being received or send to the antivirus that are installed as preventive measure everything needs to be operational and well working. One should also be focused on the happenings and the invention where keeping up-to-date is the key to protection against cyber warfare.
The current ongoing racket of Spam is also a perfect cyber warfare weapon. Spam is a low intensity, diffuse, and persistent attack which targets the desired segment and relocates the strategy according to their motive. In cyber war, the information infrastructure is the medium that is being targeted and impacts the most in retrieving the desired information or manipulating the system making it obsolete for its performance. So to prohibit this we need to focus on security systems that could stand against the attacks here are some of the options which are very much in use:

a. Encryption: Encryption is a set of coded algorithm that converts important data’s into blocks of unrecognizable format which prohibits the information from any illegal use. It is a process of converting data using algorithm into secured form preventing it from any kind of abuse or use. Encryption is not a fully secured security system as algorithm codes can be channelized and manipulated in possible way but to a level they do prevent from illegal use and to certain option they do act as a saviors.

b. Network Security: Network security is a curial issue for any Network Administrator in safe guarding the networks and peers connected to the network. Network security is a broad term that encompasses issues likes proper infrastructures and policies that facilitates the successful use and control of network in the most prominent way giving equal opportunity for grow and expansion. Network security simply helps in protecting the boundaries of its limitation and excludes trespasser in safeguarding the valuable information. Network security is a very prominent option of security against attackers.

c. System Security: System security refers to the individual system that protects information and data from theft, tampering and abuse by any unauthorized use, giving substance and flexibility to the desired users in acquiring the information as per their needs. For examples the antivirus, firewall etc.

d. Application Security: Application security is specifically related to an application life cycle process that takes effective measures in safeguarding the vulnerabilities that are open during the application process. The application security also prevents any breach in security policy while designing, development, upgrading and maintenance of the application process.

e. Security Monitoring/Auditing: Security monitoring and auditing refers to constantly watching and updating the policies, regulation and mechanism according to the need of environment. It results in creating effective and efficient environment for safe use of the system in every possible way prohibiting any manipulation and abuse. A system with its network security needs to be constantly watched with relation to global happening and update itself with the technological upcoming. It’s the basic need where lack of update might result in system vulnerabilities. As attackers always seek for loop holes and once the system becomes vulnerable, they certainly don’t miss their chance.

4. Cyber Terrorism

According to the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), “Cyber Terrorism is any premeditated, politically motivated attack against information, computer systems, computer programs, and data which results in violence against non-combatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents.” Cyber terrorism is also referred as electronic terrorism or informational war where the diversion of information can create obstructing situations. Cyber terrorism attacks are strategically designed to maximize damage both physically or financial. The possible cyber terrorist targets are public interest properties like banking industry, television and communication station, military installations, power plants, malls and business centers, water systems etc.
Thus, Cyber terrorism is a criminal act of punishment subjected to wrong use of computers and telecommunications capabilities, resulting in violence, destruction and/or disruption of services in any possible way with the intention of damage to any sector in any possible way. Reality is the information that are easily available on website can be wrongly used or manipulated in desired way to result in mishaps in a scenario of possibility.
Similarly, few years back a huge concern was raised regarding the satellite mapping images of Google earth to potential high profile places and its possibility of use by terrorist organization. Later the issue was hyped and took a form of a ban which was enacted highlighting the potential threat of terrorism. I believe cyber terrorism is such a vague topic where it threats human society in every step as internet has acclimatized 21st century in the most profound way.
Information of vital resources are easily available on internet, apart from that technical content of making bombs and other relevant terms are easily available on websites making it easy for cyber terrorist groups to harbor and train innocent people.
Apart from that Terrorist groups are increasingly attracted to modern communications technology for planning, recruiting, propaganda purposes, enhancing communications, command and control, fund raising and funds transfer, information gathering etc taking terrorism to the next level. This aspect of cyber terrorism materializes the flexibility of web information for expansion of terror around the world, which indeed is a slacking factor.

4.1 Reasons for popularity of Cyber Terrorism
Cyber Terrorism is the next step of terrorism adapting the advancement of technology and system which profuse in utilizing the flexibility by targeting the loop holes of cyberspace and materializes its substance. The basic attractions of Cyber Terrorism are high impact, use of less resource, cost effective, fast, untraceable and effective in every possible way that is yet to be discovered with the booming technology and advancement.

a. Perceived Secrecy: Cyber Terrorism gives an advantage to such groups in falsely creating an image in cyber space giving easy results to their bad intention in the most prominent way. The easy use of false IP and other flexible options that are readily available in the open network makes it easy to target others and attack them from safe distance. The accessibility of open source and easy hacking is also an option which facilitates cyber terrorism in opening the loop holes and utilizing it according to their personnel needs and wants.

b. Diverse targets: Internet today is connected to every part of the world, and there is relatively a question about who or what is not associated with it? The diverse aspect and the dynamics of internet in growing prospect have certainly attracted all fields from life making it the most happening thing. From social networking to easy access online chatting internet is the most happening thing which certainly gives stance to target vulnerable groups as easy targets of cyber terrorism. The feasibility of the cyber space provides an advantage to the terrorist groups to harbor extort and train innocent people in desired way. The availability of easy accessibility certainly helps in manipulation making discrimination, racialism, enthusiasm, aggravation etc as a tool in expansion of their terrorist group. The Internet certainly has open doors for opportunity but on the same has invited inevitable risks which are tolling in for externalities. These factors are very progressive and efficient in many ways where the flexibility of internet has been an advantage for them and a curse for the innocent people online.

c. Low risk of detection:
The Dynamics of internet is so vast and vague that the possibilities of its existence and application are yet to be discovered. Internet provides a vast ray of software and codes that can virtually make you vanish in cyber space and gives you the power of low risk detection. Apart from that these days the easy access of open network sharing can allow you to access the net imaging a false IP and further gives the accessibility to do stuff that can just be imagined.

d. Low risk of personnel injury: Cyber space certainly provides the advantage of low risk of detection using the help of different software where the risk of injuries to the resource are also very low or nil. Thus, it results in easy access and impact with just a touch of button which very efficient and effective in terms of strategy. With just the help of an attacker, devastation can be resulted in seconds using less resource. So low use of resources refers to low detection and low detection gives substance to low risk, and may be this is the reason why cyber terrorism is such of a threat. Likewise, it is said that impact can only create a damage of certainly level but experience can damage more than anything.

e. Low investment: Low Investment is a prominent factor that attracts cyber terrorism to cyber space. Previously, when millions of dollars were spend on weapons and training on battle field and the output or damage was limited in battle field. Now, the impacts are very high and the use of resources is also very limited but the result can be very big and damaging. Cyber space provide a psychology of war mentality where people win by utilizing others weakness and vulnerabilities and to some extent that limits the use of resources and in so many ways makes it efficient. Reality is with an efficient human resource and low investment in a hard ware and software, the impact could be immense which is an effective strategy.

f. Operate from nearly any location: The easy accessibility of internet certainly provides an opportunity to operate from any desired location virtually making you invisible is a simple trick. The possibility of sitting in a remote location and resulting damaging some thousand of kilometers away is an advantage of the open network.

4.2 Key Measures for Protection against Cyber Terrorism

1. All personal information and crucial data should be protected and should not be displayed
2. Effective password combining characters, numeric and strings should be used to protect all accounts online
3. Whenever the network encounters errors, the network then should be reconfigured and enabling all protection software
4. Timely update of the security system prevents from encountering new errors
5. The system administrator should keep a close eyes in the system logs and its uses
5. Key Players or Stakeholders of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism

Cyber security basically follows the combination of three aspects People, Systems and Procedures. Systems and Procedures are the key factors developed by peoples, so human resources play a pivotal role in controlling and operating the cyber-security and defense initiative. More often it’s the human ambition and resources that makes the system work against each other creating conflict in fulfilling their selfish motives. The system certainly defines the role and scope where human ambition creates the opportunity, resulting in the possibilities of damage. The basic key player in cyber warfare and terrorism are listed as below;

1. Policy System: Policy System is an important mechanism that tackles the policy level in creating and defining scenario in and against the policy mechanism. The policy system is the most prominent system that setup the boundaries for the pros and cons safeguarding the rights of normal people who use the system with in the periphery of that location. Policy defines the role and scope of development and growth making the system secure from vulnerabilities and externalities.

a. International Security Council: International Security Council is the main body that sets standards in safeguarding the rights of its user from every angle possible. The council also involves in proper growth and development within the frame work of developing effective policy and regulation. It also monitors and further researches into issues of concern where its role is very prominent in policy design and further grow and development. For example some of the international Security Council is Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).

b. Government body: Government Body is the main authoritative body that’s responsible for the overall management of the internet infrastructure and other security issue in its periphery. Its responsibilities are very much dynamic to the changes and happening that affect the industry and should always keep an eye open.

c. Country’s home security system: The country’s home security is also an important system as it protects the system and network from hackers and intruders. If the system is not effectively protected then it certainly makes the entire network and its peers vulnerable and they most likely to become prune to attacks. Installing an effective security system is the utmost need where as updating and maintaining the security system is its priority.

d. Intelligence System: Information is the key to any system and especially about the enemy is a key winning factor which can make a huge difference in the battle or warfare. Gathering information about enemy tools and cyber-security systems is as valuable as maintaining a security system. Even at a company level it is important to know what kind of new security tools are being developed and its resourcefulness. So having an effective intelligence system certainly helps in safeguarding the country as it basically acts as a preparation of what can happen and what could be done?

2 Key Players/Stakeholders: Key players are the main stakeholders who play an important role in the industry. They are the main people who run and inhibit the industry bearing all the happening and consequences where they try to work their operation within the limitation of policies. They aspire the limitation where they help the industry to expand and grow in the most effective and efficient way.

a. Experts: Security experts are the key players in the cyber-security defense force. They play a crucial role in designing and developing firewalls and other security measures. Without these people a country or a company needs to rely upon external help that may or may not be successful or viable.

b. Systems Programmers: Adapting the knowledge of security requirements and new security loop holes, system programmers are the essential key players who corrects the errors and try to integrate the systems effectiveness in the best possible way. The knowledge of system and skills in programming helps in taking effective measures and helps to progress the IT industry as well as cyber-security

c. Hackers: Hackers are the essential key players in the fight against the security issues. They play a very important role from both sides’ protection as well as attacking. From protection side they help to understand the progressive psychology of their breed and help to understand their coding techniques and behaviors in cyber space. Hackers tends to do security consulting where they help the security experts in identifying the loop holes in the system and in collaboration they work their ways with security experts to cover them all.

d. Cyber Terrorist: Cyber Terrorist is a specific new term which in the verge of exploring its depth. Though the terms itself is not clear but the relative definition of a cyber terrorist is very dynamic and broad. A Cyber terrorist is a well equipped person with enough knowledge to act as threat to modern information systems, especially to the nation’s defenses and critical infrastructure. His capabilities don’t limit him from any specific definition but he is a top priority security threat to any country at national level.

3 Target Group: Target group are the vulnerable groups who are open for any sort of attack and have to bear the consequences in case of any attack. They are always the center of attraction where, it depends upon their initiation and alertness to tackle an attack. The target group can be of different level, country level, organizational level and individual level. It is the most important aspect of any attack strategy that suggests target group are instigates at different level according to the intensity of attack.

6. Prospect of Developing countries in Respect to Cyber warfare and Terrorism

Cyber warfare and terrorism are the growing aspect of threats to the developing countries where the chances of damages are very high and prominent. Though the technological advance have given us an edge in protecting & safeguarding our system and network in a more efficient and effective way; the same is also providing an effective medium for cyber attackers to develop further hard attack mechanism which are even faster, efficient and effective. Likewise, the ongoing discrimination of bandwidth, lapse of security policies, standardization, access and flexibility have resulted in a vacuum in between the developed and developing nation where internet acts as common medium for both but with double standards. These double standards are creating specific loop holes where the cyber attackers are manipulating and strategizing their obstructive motive that victimizes and facilitates the prospect of Cyber warfare and terrorism.
a. Digital divide: Wiki defines, “Digital Divide refers to the gap between people with effective access to digital and information technology and those with very limited or no access at all.” So the difference in the technology makes the stronger fish eat the smaller fish where innocent people with limited technology and knowledge are 24/7 exploited by every means possible. The frauds emails, fake identities, fake websites, scams, hacking, viruses etc are some of the prominent products that are harbored due to digital divide.

b. Lack of net neutrality: Net Neutrality refers to the freedom in sense of accessing information or any means of communication in cyber space. It basically refers to no discrimination prioritizing the rights of information access. If there are discrimination maintain then it’s certain that it will be wrongly used, so lack of net neutrality certainly plays crucial role in giving an upper hand to the exploiter to target the vulnerable groups in cyber space.

c. Standardization: Standardization is an issue that has been in question from the beginning. Standardization is the set of rules, regulation and policies that needs to be acquainted with the system. Lack of standardization results in conflict between users and parties which gives room for externalities. The lapses of policies and regulations are well manipulated in serving the selfish motives where the exploiters are always in search of such loop holes.

d. Lack of effective technical human resources: Especially in developing countries the lack of human resource impedes the systems. The technological transfer is very much in air but due to lack of proper human resource the systems gets underestimated where the exploiter benefit the loop hole in manipulating their selfish motives.

e. Piracy: Piracy has been a problem in internationally. In cyber space pirated software can cost you more than what it cost in real resulting in great security lapses. Specially in developing countries due to lack of awareness and rules piracy is very evident where people promote it unknowing jeopardizing their security in view of saving few bucks. The problem of piracy can be overcome by effective channelization of standardization giving stand to social responsibility of big software companies toward the developing country.

7. Current and Past events
Annual E-Crime Congress
The annual E-Crime congress is one the largest gatherings of those who work to combat cyber crime. Delegates included banking experts, police and IT industry luminaries, all keen to discover new ways to fight online crime.
The prospect of internet-based warfare has come to the fore after a series of high-profile international attacks. Last year, it emerged that a gang of hackers, believed to be from China, had infiltrated computer systems at the Pentagon and launched attacks on government networks in Britain, Germany, India and Australia. US officials, who have labelled the group Titan Rain, have accused them of operating under the auspices of officials in Beijing.
David Davis, said “Cybercrime is a growing and serious threat to individuals, business and government. It is a problem that will continue to escalate as technology changes,"
Cyber Warfare 2010, is a event scheduled for January 27 - 28, 2010 CCT Centre, Canary Wharf, London, UK
 Insights into the evolving cyber threats to national security and information systems and evaluation of solutions to mitigate the threat
 Analysis of current and future legal issues, political pressures and challenges surrounding Cyber Warfare attacks and appropriate national cyber space activity
 Evolving national policy and doctrinal updates of Cyber Security and Cyber warfare from the UK MoD, US DoD, Estonian MoD
 Examination and lessons learnt from cyber attacks with insights from NATO studies and the Estonian MoD
 Latest technology updates in cyberspace and current research and development for both Computer Network Defence and Computer Network Attack
(Source: http://www.cyberwarfare-event.com/Event.aspx?id=228104)

The 3rd International conference on IPRs, Personal Data Protection and National Security, October 20 – 22, 2009 in Beirut, Lebanon

The conference is co-organised by Lebanese Information Technology Association (LITA) and International Association of Cybercrime Prevention (AILCC) and hosted by University of Saint Joseph in Beirut. The event is held in cooperation with Interdisciplinary Center for Law and ICT , Belgium ; The Higher Council for Science and Technology, Jordan ; The Ministry of Administrative Reform, Lebanon and Microsoft Lebanon.
On behalf of the organizing Committee, we sincerely invite you to attend the conference and/ or submit your full research paper before 1st October 2009 focusing on Law, IT and Cyberspace issues such as, but not limited to:
Privacy issues in cyber society
- Cybercrime
- Intellectual property rights
- Consumer protection
- Internet security
- Bio technology
- Nano technology
- International trade law
- E-business
- Trademarks and domain names
- Patents
- E-commerce
- Jurisdiction in cyberspace
- E-banking and e-business
- E-signature and Computer forensic

Call for Papers – ISSCRIM 2009, João Pessoa – Paraíba, Brazil (21 and 22 May, 2009)

Under the auspices of CCRC, International Association of Cybercrime Prevention (AILCC) in France and Universidade Federal da Paraíba (Brazil) invite you to participate in: “International Conference on Cybercrime And International Criminal Cooperation”
This conference is an opportunity for academics and consultants to exchange ideas and discuss most recent topics focusing on cybercrime and cyberlaw.
Bringing together leading academics, experts and professionals from all over the world, the conference discusses privacy, security, information technology and other cyberlaw issues.
We invite contributions focusing on cybercrime issues such as, but not limited to:
- Organized Crime
- International Criminal Cooperation
- Child pornography on the Internet
- Cybercrime in Brazil
- Cyberterrorism
- Intellectual Property Rights on the Internet
- Online Tax Fraud
- Information Security
- Bio – Technology
- Consumer Protection
- Privacy and Freedom of Expression in Cyberspace
- E signature

3nd Annual Fraud &Corruption Summit, 18THth-20th March 2009, Brussels

Expanding on the unprecedented success of previous summits held in Copenhagen and Stockholm, the 3rd Annual Fraud &Corruption Summit focuses on the detection, prevention &investigation of fraud & corruption and related financial crimes. It brings together (as a team) the disciplines of corporate audit, security, fraud prevention, corporate responsibility and risk management and has the backing of various chapters of the IIA, ISACA, ASIS and ACFE.
Global Fraud Summit 2008, 14-17 October 2008, Singapore

Date: 14th - 17th October 2008
Location: Singapore
Web url: www.globalfraudsummit.com
Today, businesses are fraught with fraud. 90% of white-collar crimes are now committed by companies’ own staff. Why the increase? Companies must boost their internal controls, compliance and anti-fraud framework. However, establishing one is tough. Training and awareness, gaining trust among employees are challenges the fraud manager has to tackle.

Furthermore, fraudsters have an international syndicate and they have also made use of technology as a means to defraud their organizations. Fraudsters these days get away without punishment as sometimes, companies do not wish to bear the brunt of losing their reputation. So how can there be a system to alert that the fraudster is on the lose? Do whistleblowing tactics work? What are repercussions of the whistleblower? Dare anyone be the whistleblower in the Asian context?

This summit will address strategies, theories and practical methodologies to prevent fraud, dismiss the idea of cheating and have policies for control.
Interested to participate, please go to www.globalfraudsummit.com/enquire.php for more information!
For priority booking, please quote priority code VHU715

CYBER SECURITY EXPO October 16, 2008
Date: 16th October 2008
Location: Memphis, USA
Web url: http://cfialab.memphis.edu/expo
The University of Memphis Center for Information Assurance will host the 2008 Cyber Security Expo at the FedEx Institute of Technology on October 16th. Information Assurance and Cyber Security experts will be on-site for lectures, networking and training to address emerging trends in cyber security. We are proud to have a renowned keynote speaker for the event, Daniel J Larkin. The Expo will also feature many relevant exhibits and booths from a variety of significant venues. Sponsors, exhibitors, and participants are urged to contact us as soon as possible.

International Conference on Digital Evidence, 26th - 27th June 2008 -London, United Kingdom.
This is the first conference of its kind to treat the subject in such a global context, and without the traditional sole focus on e-disclosure.
MIS Training has partnered with Stephen Mason, Barrister, Editor, Digital Evidence and Electronic Signature Law Review, Associate Senior Research Fellow, Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, London &Visiting Research Fellow, Digital Evidence Research, British Institute of International and Comparative Law (UK) for this timely conference.

Hear from the international speaker panel which spans over 17 different jurisdictions. Lawyers, barristers, IT investigators, in-house counsel and digital forensics experts will present you with the most current reports from around the world.

Judges, lawyers (in-house lawyers as well as lawyers in practice), digital forensic specialists, police officers &IT / security directors responsible for conducting investigations will find this of tremendous benefit - as the unique chance to compare the real &problematic issues that surround digital evidence.
(Source: http://www.crime-research.org/events/)
8. Prevention against Cyber warfare and terrorism

Stopping the attacker is the primary concern for any system. The top priority of any system is to keep itself sustained while in operation and when it rests. A system is more active when it’s operational but on contrary it also becomes more vulnerable during its processing. If it is not protected with effective security programs, it gives advantage for attackers to try their luck. Most of the attacks are very simple and straightforward and a good prevention is to simply lock it, unless somebody expects an army trying to enter. So the bottom line is a system is never too strong or weak, it’s the resourcefulness of the user to make the system more effective and efficient to fight against the loop holes of the system and to correct it with effective security program and mechanism.
Main tools in this category are:

I. Firewalls: Fire wall is a part of system encoded security access program that prevents from unauthorized access to or from a private network while permitting authorized communications. A firewall is a complete system that is implemented in a both computer hardware and software.

There are several types of firewall techniques:

a) Packet filter: Packet filter is technique of checking the packets of information that is sent in-between the network and accepts or rejects it based on user-defined rules.
b) Application gateway: Its s security mechanism that monitor the specific application like FTP and Telnet servers. This system is very effective but slow down the operation speed.
c) Circuit-level gateway: This technique is specifically used to monitor the flow of information during the connection of TCP or UDP. After the connection is made the information can flow without further security checks.
d) Proxy server: It helps to intercept all the information that goes between the network connection and effectively hides the true network address• Authentication systems.

II. Authorization systems: Authorization system refer to a mechanism which helps a user to access a system according to the priority level that he or she has been assigned to and effectively channelizes the mechanism in sustaining and accessing the resources according to authority that has been defined for him or her.

III. Network scanners: Network scanners are specified sets of software that analyzes a network to determine its exposure to unwanted intruders. It is also known as vulnerability scanners. These software checks the clients PC servers, routers, firewalls, network appliances, system software and applications for vulnerabilities that include open ports, back doors, poorly written scripts and blocks the operating systems from such threats.

IV. System scanners: System Scanners are individual scanning software that scans the system and its system files for security vulnerabilities that are implemented in any form of email or code or any sort of cookies. The system scanner are completely update based which are directly interconnected to their host software which updates it on regular basis.

9. Allegation and Controversies toward Developed nation

a. Most of the developed countries transfer their technologies in motives of their business development but they fail to address the relative issues of standardization and policy.
b. The Digital divide and the discrimination of net neutrality is a concern of developing countries where they are bound to face the consequences.
c. Most of the acts of cyber warfare have been a result of power manipulation to showcase their presence in view of making the target fulfilling all the demand of the attacker.
d. Most of the attacks have been targeted from developed countries to developing countries where the developing countries pay the consequences of lack of proper infrastructure or policy.
e. Hippocratic mentality of developed countries in using net neutrality and digital divide as medium of political manifesto.
f. The international agencies related to cyber space are bias to developed countries in giving them an authority and manipulation where they rule their business.
g. Lack of effective human resource is subjected to developing countries where the attackers are one step ahead.

10. Conclusion

Cyber warfare and terrorism is a fight of power where the big fish eats the small fish. The only way to solve it is by overcoming the barriers of discrimination in binding within the dynamic of standardization.
The aspect of Digital Divide and Net Neutrality should be overcome in the most proper way of abolishing discrimination giving substance to the right of information to all. According to Symantec, “Symantec blocked an average of more than 245 million attempted malicious code attacks across the globe each month during 2008. Phony emails, fake web sites and online ads trick innocent victims into divulging personal data like social security and credit card numbers. Cyber criminals then sell the information to the highest bidder on the online black market. Symantec (Nasdaq: SYMC) knows that cyber crime is real crime, that’s why today, the maker of Norton security software, is bringing to market a completely unique approach to online security with Norton 2010.”
Cyber space has become more vulnerable to externalities of fraud, scams, malicious threats, virus, hacking etc where being secured is a question that haunts everyone. So being secured certainly means being updated where one’s security certainly lies at the stake of awareness in the every possible way. On contrary Cyber attackers and their technologies are getting sharper and smarter where the hackers and attackers are one step ahead of us keeping the technological boon manipulating the knowledge and availability in and against the innocent people.
“Cyber space provide a psychology of war mentality where people win by utilizing others weakness and vulnerabilities and to some extent that limits the use of resources and in so many ways makes it efficient.”
Information of vital resources are easily available on internet, apart from that technical content of making bombs and other relevant terms are easily available on websites making it easy for cyber terrorist groups to harbor and train innocent people.
Apart from that Terrorist groups are increasingly attracted to modern communications technology for planning, recruiting, propaganda purposes, enhancing communications, command and control, fund raising and funds transfer, information gathering etc taking terrorism to the next level. This aspect of cyber terrorism materializes the flexibility of web information for expansion of terror around the world, which indeed is a slacking factor.
11. References

1. Keith Lourdeau, Deputy Assistant Director, Cyber Division, FBI, “Congressional Testimony, presented before the Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology, and Homeland Security,” February 24, 2004, http://www.fbi.gov/congress/congress04/lourdeau022404.htm
2. Brenner, S. (2009). Cyber Threats: The Emerging Fault Lines of the Nation State.
3. "New 'cyber attacks' hit S Korea". BBC News. 2009-07-09. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/8142282.stm.
4. Williams, Martyn (2009-07-14). "UK, not North Korea, source of DDOS attacks, researcher says". IDG News Service. http://www.networkworld.com/news/2009/071409-uk-not-north-korea-source.html?ap1=rcb.
5. "Pyongyang blamed as cyber attack hits S Korea". Financial Times. 2009-07-09. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/61bc6d22-6c1f-11de-9320-00144feabdc0.html.
6. "Governments hit by cyber attack". BBC News. 2009-07-08. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/8139821.stm.
7. Markoff, John (2009-07-09). "Cyberattacks Jam Government and Commercial Web Sites in U.S. and South Korea". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/10/technology/10cyber.html.
8. "Cyber Attacks Hit Government and Commercial Websites". Foxreno.com. 2009-07-08. http://www.foxreno.com/news/19999665/detail.html.
9. "US State Department under cyberattack for fourth day". AFP. 2009-07-10. http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5jnGA5yrkZlqmNHmhctub8FuA9TbA.
10. Jiyeon, Lee (2009-07-11). "Cyberattack rocks South Korea". GlobalPost. http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/south-korea/090710/cyberattacks.
11. Kim, Kwang-Tae (2009-07-12). "S. Korea analyzes computers used in cyberattacks". http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5jO5PtkM_1FjwMZjh3LS74g26yiUQD99CRCO80.
12. Zetter, Kim (2009-07-08). "Lazy Hacker and Little Worm Set Off Cyberwar Frenzy". Wired News. http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2009/07/mydoom/.

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